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Vocab Qtr 2

Chemistry Vcoab: 9, 11, 12, 15, 16

mole ratio the ratio of moles of one substance to moles of another substance in a balanced chemical equation
stoichiometry the process of using a balanced chemical equation to determine the relative masses of reactants and products involved in a reaction
limiting reactant the reactant that is completely used up when a reaction is run to completion
theoretical yield the maximum amount of a given product that can be formed when the limiting reactant is completely consumed
percent yield the actual yield of a product as the percentage of the theoretical yield
electromagnetic radiation radiant energy that exhibits wavelike behavior and travels through space at the speed of light in a vacuum
wavelength the distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs in a wave
frequency the number of waves (cycles) per second that pass a given point in space
photon a particle of electromagnetic radiation
quantized energy levels of hydrogen are quantized
orbital the three dimensional region in which there is a high probability of finding an electron in an atom
principal energy levels labeled with whole numbers, hydrogen atom
sublevels the levels divided
Pauli exclusion principle in a given atom, no two electrons can occupy the same atomic orbital and have the same spin
electron configuration the arrangement of electrons in an atom
box diagram where orbitals are represented by boxes grouped by sublevels with small arrows indicating the electrons
valence electrons the electron in the outermost principal energy level of an atom
core electrons an inner electron; an electron not in the outermost principal energy level of an atom
ionization energy the amount of energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion
bond (chemical bond) the force that holds two or more atoms together and makes them function as a unit
bond energy the energy required to break a given chemical bond
ionic bonding the attraction between oppositely charged ions
ionic compound a compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal to form cations and anions
covalent bonding a type of bonding in which atoms share electrons
polar covalent bond a covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally because one atom attracts the shared electrons more than the other atom
electronegativity the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself
dipole moment a property of a molecule in which the charge distribution can be represented by a center of positive charge and a center of a negative charge
Lewis structure a representation of a molecule or polyatomic ion showing how valence electrons are arranged among the atoms in the molecule or ion
bonding pair a pair of electrons that are shared between two atoms forming a covalent or polar-covalent bond
lone pair electron pairs in a Lewis structure that are not involved in bonding
single bond a covalent or polar covalent bond in which one pair of electrons is shared by two atoms
double bond a covalent or polar covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms
triple bond a covalent or polar covalent bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms
resonance a condition occurring when more than one valid Lewis structure can be written for a particular molecule
molecular structure the three dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule
VSEPR model (valence shell electron pair repulsion) a model used to predict molecular geometry, based on the idea that pairs electrons surrounding an atom repel each other and that the atoms in a molecule are positioned to minimize this repulsion
solution a homogenous mixture
solvent the dissolving medium in a solution
solute the substance dissolved in the solvent to make a solution
aqueous solution a solution with water as a solvent
saturated describes a solution that contains as much solute as will dissolve at that temperature
unsaturated describes a solution in which more solute can dissolve than is dissolved already at that temperature
supersaturated describes a solution that contains more solute than a saturated solution will hold at that temperature
concentrated describes a solution in which a relatively large amount of solute is dissolved in a solution
dilute describes a solution in which a relatively small amount of solute is dissolved in a solution
standard solution a solution in which the concentration is accurately known
dilution the process of adding solvent to a solution to lower the concentration of solute
neutralization reaction an acid-base reaction
equivalent of an acid the amount of acid that can furnish one mole of hydrogen ions (H+)
equivalent of a base the amount of base that can furnish one mole of hydroxide ions (OH-)
equivalent weight the mass (in grams) of one equivalent of an acid or base
normality is defined as the number of equivalents of solute per liter of solution
colligative property a property that is dependent only on the number of solute particles present in solution
Arrhenius concept of acids and bases acids produce hydrogen ions and bases produce hydroxide ions
conjugate acid the substance formed when a proton is added to a base
conjugate base the remaining substance when a proton is lost from an acid
conjugate acid-base paid two substances related to each other bu the donating and accepting of a single proton
hydronium ion H 3 O +
strong acid an acid that completely dissociates to produce H+ ions in solution
weak acid an acid that dissociates to a slight extent in aqueous solution
diprotic acid an acid that can furnish two protons
oxyacid an acid in which the acidic proton is attached to an oxygen atom
organic acid an acid with a carbon atom backbone and a carboxyl group
amphoteric substance a substance that can behave either as an acid or as a base
indicator (acid-base) a chemical that changes color depending on the pH of a solution
indicator paper a strip of paper coated with a combination of acid-base indicators
pH meter a device used to measure the pH of a solution
neutralization reaction an acid-base reaction
titration a technique in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution
standard solution a solution in which the concentration is accurately known
buret a device used for the accurate measurement of the delivery of a given volume of a liquid or solution
equivalence point (stoichiometric point) the point in a titration when enough titrant has been added to react exactly with the substance in solution that is being titrated
titration curve (pH curve) a plot of pH of solution versus volume of titrant added to a given solution
buffered solution a solution that resists a change in pH when either an acid or a base are added
Created by: briannaaa_vik