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ch. 17-18 chem. eq.

chem equilibrium and stuff

reaction mechanism a series of steps that leads from reactants to products
elementary step an individual step of a reaction mechanism
intermediates products produced in one step of a reaction that serve as reactants in a later step
Collision theory particles must collide w/ eachother or a wall in order to react
effective collision a collision that leads to the formation of products
ineffective collision collision forms no products
factors for effective collisions orientation of particles & energy of colliding particles
what are most collisions? ineffective
activation energy energy needed for effective collisions, the difference bw energy of the activated complex & reactants
chemical kinetics study of rates @ which reactions occur
activated complex the transition structure when energy level is greatest, unstable
things that impact reaction rate T-the higher, the greater the rate Concentration-inc , inc surface area-inc-inc catalyst-lowers Ea, lower reaction rate inhibitors-raise Ea, slow reaction
avg. reaction rate (mols/sec) change in concentration of reactants or products per time lapsed
reaction rate law equation that relates the reacting rate to the concentration of substances; R=k*(A)^x(b)^y
reaction order reaction concentration exponent
overall reaction order the sum of the reactant orders
rate determining step the slowest elementary step of the reaction mechanism
chem. equilibrium forward rate of reaction=reverse rate of reaction
chem. equilibrium law reversible reactions proceed to equilibrium w/ a specific ratio of product and reactant concentrations
if the equilibrium constant is a lot less than 1, what does the reaction favor? reactants
if the equilibrium constant is a lot more than 1. what does the reaction favor? products
Chatelier's principle when stress is imposed on a system at equilibrium, it will cause the equilibrium to shift in a direction that reduces the stress
factors that alter chem equilibrium: concentration, pressure/volume, T
precipitation the process of aqueous ions reforming a solid
dissociation process of solid separating into aqueous ions
solubility equilibrium chem equilibrium bw a saturated solution of ions and the remaining solid
solubility product product of concentrations of each ion raised to the powers of their coefficients
Ion product Q used to determine if reaction is at equilibrium
common ion effect when 2 solutes share a common ion, you must consider the combined concentrations of the ion
Created by: VaLeRiA!