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# CHEMEX4

### Kinetics and nuclear

The rate of reaction must be... positive (thats why need negative sign in front of equation)
In RXn, the reactant concentration.... decreases with time because reactants are consumed
In RXn, the product concentration... increases with time because products are formed.
average rate of rxn _______ as progresses decreases
For most reactions, the rate depends on the... concentrations of the reactants
what is n in the rate law equation? the reaction order
if n = 0, ..... reaction order is zero; rate is independent of the concentration of A
if n= 1,.... reaction order is first order; rate directly proportional to concentration of A
if n=2, ..... reaction is second order; rate is proportional to the square of the concentration of A
Zero order reaction: concentration of reactant... decreases linearly with time; the rate is constant because the reaction does not slow down as the concentration of A decreases.
First order reaction: concentration of reactant... is directly proportional to the rate of reaction; rate slows down as reaction proceeds because the concentration of reactant decreases.
Second order reaction, the rate of reaction is.. proportional to the square of the concentration of the reactant; the rate is even more sensitive to reactant concentration and slope of curve flattens out more quickly than in first-order
DETERMINING THE ORDER OF A REACTION the order of a reaction can be determined only by experiment. A common way to determine reaction order is by the method of initial rates.
initial rate- the rate for a short period of time at the beginning of the reaction
in a first order reaction, the value of the rate consta,t k, can be determined by solving the rate law for k and substituting the concentration and initial rate from any of the one of three measurements
For a zero-order reaction, the initial rate is the same at all measured initial concentrations
for a second-order reaction, the initial rate ... quadruples for a doubling of the reactant concentration
the integrated rate law for a chemical reaction is a relationship between concentrations of reactants and time
the half life of a reaction(t 1/2) time required for the concentration of the reactant to fall to one-half of its initial value
half life of first order reaction: t 1/2= 0.693/ k; so, k = 0.693/ (t 1/2)
shorter half life= larger k
collision theory: how will increasing concentration affect the rate of chemical reaction? increase rate of rxn, increase # of colisions between reactant molecules
collision theory: how will increasing the temperature affect the rate of chemical reaction? increease rate of rxn, increase frequency of collisions, increase kinetic energy w/ which they collide, resulting in greaterfraction of collsions producing product
collision theory: how will addition of a catalyst affect the rate of chemical reaction? increase rate of rxn, alters rxn pathway, lower activation enerygy for new reaction pathway
Advantages of nuclear power 1) no CO2 produced 2) not dependent on foreign oil 3) a lot of energy from small amount of fuel
Disadvantages of nuclear power 1) waste is radioactive for a long time 2) accidents can release radioactivity 3) fuel could be diverted for weapons
what is a PET scan work? uses radiation, or nuclear medicine imaging, to produce 3-dimensional, color images of the functional processes within the human body. PET stands for positron emission tomography.
how does a pet scan work? The machine detects pairs of gamma rays which are emitted indirectly by a tracer (positron-emitting radionuclide) which is placed in the body on a biologically active molecule. The images are reconstructed by computer analysis
A PET scan uses __________________ that naturally emit ____________________ which interact with __________________ radioactive isotope; positrons; a nearby negatively charged electron
why is radon hazardous? it decays to 218 Po which is a solid and alpha emitter. If radon decays while in the lungs, it leaves a solid alpha-emitter behind which will continue to emit radiation
when 131/53I undergoes beta decay, it becomes.. 131/54 Xe
with beta decay, bottom number.. increases by 1
with alpha decay.. top number 4 less, bottom number 2 less
Created by: sbush0804