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Runion Poetry Review

Poetry terms for review

TermDefinition
ALLITERATION repetition of the same or similar consonant sounds in words that are close together.
ALLUSION reference to someone or something that is known from history, literature, religion, politics, sports, science, or another branch of culture.
ANAPEST A metrical foot with two short or unaccented syllables followed by a long or accented syllable, as in “inter-VENE” or “for a WHILE”.
APOSTROPHE calling out to an imaginary, dead, or absent person, or to a place or thing, or a personified abstract idea.
ARGUMENT single assertion or a series of assertions presented and defended by the writer.
ASSONANCE the repetition of similar vowel sounds followed by different consonant sounds especially in words that are together.
BALLAD A short poem that tells a simple story and has a repeated refrain.
BLANK VERSE Poetry written without rhymes, but which retains a set metrical pattern, usually iambic pentameter.
COUPLET two consecutive rhyming lines of poetry.
DACTYL A metrical foot of three syllables, the first of which is long or accented and the next two short or unaccented, as in “MER-rily” or “LOV-er boy”.
DRAMATIC MONOLOGUE A poem in which a poetic speaker addresses either the reader or an internal listener at length.
ELEGY a poem of mourning, usually about someone who has died.
ENJAMBMENT The continuation of the sense and, therefore, the grammatical construction of a sentence beyond the end of a line of poetry.
EXTENDED METAPHOR A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work.
FEMININE RHYME A rhyme in which accented rhyming syllables in two words are followed by identical unaccented syllables (turtle/fertile)
FOOT A unit of rhythm or meter; the division in poetry of a group of syllables, one of which is long or accented.
HYMN STANZA A four line stanza that mimics the musical meter of a traditional Christian hymn, composed of alternating iambic tetrameter and trimeter.
IAMB metrical foot consisting of two syllables, a short or unaccented syllable followed by a long or accented syllable.
INTERNAL RHYME Rhyme within a line of poetry instead of at the end.
LYRIC POEM a poem that does not tell a story but expresses the personal feelings or thoughts of the speaker.
MASCULINE RHYME A rhyme occurring in words of one syllable or in an accented final syllable.
METAPHYSICAL CONCEIT An elaborate or unusual comparison—especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction.
METER The repetition of sound patterns that creates a rhythm in poetry. The patterns are based on the number of syllables and the presence and absence of accents.
NARRATIVE POETRY A poem that tells a story.
OCTAVE a set of eight lines that rhyme according to the pattern ABBAABBA.
ODE A long, often elaborate stanzaic poem of varying line lengths and sometimes intricate rhyme schemes dealing with a serious subject matter and treating it reverently.
PASTORAL Poetry idealizing the lives of shepherds and country folk, although the term is often used loosely to include any poem featuring a rural aspect.
PERSONA The narrator in a non first-person short story, novel, or poem. This speaker is not the author, but the author’s creation--the voice “through which the author speaks.”
PETRARCHAN SONNET A sonnet composed of an octave and a sestet, usually discussing the love of a woman that is not returned. Also called an “Italian Sonnet”
QUATRAIN A poem consisting of four lines, or four lines of a poem that can be considered as a unit.
RHYME SCHEME The pattern of rhyming in the ends of lines in a poem. It is usually referred to by using letters to indicate which lines rhyme.
RHYTHM a rise and fall of the voice produced by the alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables in language.
SATIRE a type of writing that ridicules the shortcomings of people or institutions in an attempt to bring about a change.
SCANSION The act of "scanning" a poem to determine its meter. To perform scansion, the student breaks down each line into individual metrical feet and determines which syllables have heavy stress and which have lighter stress.
SESTET The last part of an Italian or Petrarchan sonnet, it consists of six lines that rhyme with a varying pattern. Common rhyme patterns include CDECDE or CDCCDC.
SHAKESPEAREAN SONNET A sonnet composed of three quatrains and a couplet.
SLANT RHYME Rhymes created out of words with similar but not identical sounds. In most of these instances, either the vowel segments are different while the consonants are identical, or vice versa.
SONNET A lyric poem of fourteen lines, usually in iambic pentameter, with rhymes arranged according to certain definite patterns. It usually expresses a single, complete idea or thought with a reversal, twist, or change of direction in the concluding lines.
SPENSERIAN SONNET A sonnet composed of three quatrains and a couplet in which the quatrains are connected by link rhyme.
SPONDEE a metrical foot consisting of two successive strong beats.
STANZA A division of a poem made by arranging the lines into units separated by a space. Each is usually of a corresponding number of lines and a recurrent pattern of meter and rhyme.
TERZA RIMA A three-line stanza form with interlocking rhymes that move from one stanza to the next. The typical pattern is ABA, BCB, CDC, DED, and so on.
TROCHAIC METER A metrical foot with a long or accented syllable followed by a short or unaccented syllable, as in “ON-ly” or “TO-tal”.
VOLTA (turn) a sudden change in thought, direction, or emotion near the conclusion of a sonnet.
WIT in modern usage, intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights.
CONCRETE POETRY Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words.
CONFESSIONAL POETRY poetry that uses intimate material from the poet’s life.
FREE VERSE poetry that does not conform to a regular meter or rhyme scheme.
CATALEXIS a metrically incomplete line of verse, lacking a syllable at the end or ending with an incomplete foot.
SONNET SEQUENCE a gathering or arrangement of sonnets by a single author so that the sonnets in that group or arrangement deal with a single theme, situation, a particular lady, or alternatively deal with what appears to be a sequential story.
PYRRHIC this foot consists of two unaccented syllables--the opposite of a spondee.
EPIGRAM A brief, sometimes satiric, couplet or quatrain, containing a single thought or event and is often witty or humorous.
CONCEIT an elaborate metaphor that compares two things that are startlingly different. Often an extended metaphor.
CAESURA a natural pause in the middle of a line coinciding with punctuation.
BALLAD STANZA consists of a four-line stanza or a quatrain containing alternating four-stress and three-stress lines with an ABCB or ABAB rhyme scheme.
END-STOPPED a metrical line ending at a grammatical boundary or break—such as a dash or closing parenthesis—or with punctuation such as a colon, a semicolon, or a period.
CACOPHONY harsh or discordant sounds, often the result of repetition and combination of consonants within a group of words.
EUPHONY a sound device consisting of several words that are pleasing to the ear. The sounds made by these words are meant to be soothing rather than harsh or alarming.
Created by: erunion
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