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Chapt 18 8th Gde Sci

Radioactivity Unit - Brandt

C-14 and C-12 are called what? Isotopes
What differs between isotopes? The number of neutrons, therefore the atomic mass
What holds the nucleus together? The Strong force
Why do isotopes have the same atomic number? They have the same number of protons
What ratio of protons to neutrons is considered stable? 1:1 for light elements (first three rows); 2:3(.67)for heavy elements (bottom rows)
The release of both particles and energy from nuclear decay radioactivity
All elements on the periodic table after this one have ONLY radioactive isotopes. Bismuth (Bi)
What did Henri Becquerel discover? radioactivity
What are the 3 types of nuclear radiation in increasing order of penetrating power? alpha, beta, gamma
Cannot go through your skin, but harmful if swallowed alpha particle .
Radiation made of two protons and two neutrons alpha particle
High speed electron emitted from a nucleus beta particle
Negative and can be stopped by a thin sheet (foil) of metal beta particle
How can an electron be released from the nucleus of a radioactive isotope as it decays? When a neutron decays, it breaks down into a proton and an electron, which is released from the nucleus.
Electromagnetic waves with high energy gamma rays
Most penetrating; stopped only by thick lead or many feet of concrete gamma rays
What do we use to determine the stability of an isotope? proton to neutron ratio
The process of combining together 2 nuclei with low masses to make a new larger atom fusion
The process of splitting a nucleus of an atom into two smaller atoms fission
The time it takes for 1/2 the nuclei in a radioactive sample to decay half-life
A radioactive isotope used by doctors in nuclear imaging to track where molecules go in the body tracer
A device that detects radiation by producing a current and “clicking” Geiger counter
Causes protons and neutrons to be attracted to each other in the nucleus of an atom strong force
The process of changing one element into another through nuclear decay transmutation
A scientist would most likely use carbon-14 to determine the age of what? A piece of bone or other formerly living material
What keeps the chain reaction in a nuclear power plant under control so the plant does not explode like a nuclear bomb? Control rods absorb neutrons
What are some practical uses of nuclear radiation? Radiation can be used to map brain activity, trace tumors in the body, and treat cancer
Created by: judi829



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