Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

CHEM 113- Unit 4

Ion-Product Expression [M^n+]^p[Z^z-]^q (for compound MpXq)
Solubility-product constant Ksp
Sulfides Ksp [HS-][OH-][Cd2+]
S molar solubility (s^3, 4s^3, etc.)
Can you compare Ksp for different moles? No! Compare S
Common ion effect if you add a common ion from the insoluble substance, it DECREASES its solubility (equilibrium)
pH & Ksp anions of weak acids have increased solubility at low pH
if Qsp>Ksp... more reactants will be formed
if Ksp>Qsp... more products will be formed
Ligands Lewis Bases stuck on metal cations (often H2O)
2 steps in forming a complex ion 1) dissolve ionic compound-> Ksp (Ag+) 2) form complex ion-> Kf (Ag(H2O)2))
Kf formation constant (of complex ions)
Koverall Ksp x Kf
First Law of Thermodynamics the conservation of energy (transferred, but never created or destroyed)
Second Law of Thermodynamics it is impossible to transfer heat to work
ΔSuniverse is always >0
ΔSuniverse= ΔSsystem+ΔSsurroundings
Entropy change in disorder
Phase change entropy gas= largest ΔS
Salt dissolution entropy dissolved= largest Δ
Microstates (w) #of locations^number of atoms
Boltzmann Equation S=k(lnw) *k= (R/avogadro's #)
Third Law of Thermodynamics a perfect crystal has zero entropy at 0°K
Entropy of fusion solid->liquid
Entropy of vaporization liquid->gas
Vibrational motion more atoms=more ways to "vibrate"=higher entropy
ΔSrxn change that occurs when reactants/products are in their standard states
ΔSrxn= ΣmSproducts-ΣmSreactants
ΔSsurroundings= -ΔHsystem/T
(ΔSuniverse) it is spontaneous if it's positive
ΔG is measured in kJ/mol
ΔG>0 not spontaneous
ΔG<0 spontaneous
ΔG=0 at equilibrium
ΔG= ΔHsystem-T(ΔSsystem) or... ΣmΔGproducts-ΣmΔGreactants
Standard states 1 atm/1M, 298K, most stable form (° symbol)
NON standard state problems use ΔG=ΔH-TΔS equation
Cross-over temperature T= ΔH/ΔS (when ΔG=0)
Coupling (ATP) very spontaneous coupled w/ a non-spontaneous reaction makes the non-spontaneous reaction go
Created by: melaniebeale



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards