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CHEM 113- Unit 4

Ion-Product Expression [M^n+]^p[Z^z-]^q (for compound MpXq)
Solubility-product constant Ksp
Sulfides Ksp [HS-][OH-][Cd2+]
S molar solubility (s^3, 4s^3, etc.)
Can you compare Ksp for different moles? No! Compare S
Common ion effect if you add a common ion from the insoluble substance, it DECREASES its solubility (equilibrium)
pH & Ksp anions of weak acids have increased solubility at low pH
if Qsp>Ksp... more reactants will be formed
if Ksp>Qsp... more products will be formed
Ligands Lewis Bases stuck on metal cations (often H2O)
2 steps in forming a complex ion 1) dissolve ionic compound-> Ksp (Ag+) 2) form complex ion-> Kf (Ag(H2O)2))
Kf formation constant (of complex ions)
Koverall Ksp x Kf
First Law of Thermodynamics the conservation of energy (transferred, but never created or destroyed)
Second Law of Thermodynamics it is impossible to transfer heat to work
ΔSuniverse is always >0
ΔSuniverse= ΔSsystem+ΔSsurroundings
Entropy change in disorder
Phase change entropy gas= largest ΔS
Salt dissolution entropy dissolved= largest Δ
Microstates (w) #of locations^number of atoms
Boltzmann Equation S=k(lnw) *k= (R/avogadro's #)
Third Law of Thermodynamics a perfect crystal has zero entropy at 0°K
Entropy of fusion solid->liquid
Entropy of vaporization liquid->gas
Vibrational motion more atoms=more ways to "vibrate"=higher entropy
ΔSrxn change that occurs when reactants/products are in their standard states
ΔSrxn= ΣmSproducts-ΣmSreactants
ΔSsurroundings= -ΔHsystem/T
(ΔSuniverse) it is spontaneous if it's positive
ΔG is measured in kJ/mol
ΔG>0 not spontaneous
ΔG<0 spontaneous
ΔG=0 at equilibrium
ΔG= ΔHsystem-T(ΔSsystem) or... ΣmΔGproducts-ΣmΔGreactants
Standard states 1 atm/1M, 298K, most stable form (° symbol)
NON standard state problems use ΔG=ΔH-TΔS equation
Cross-over temperature T= ΔH/ΔS (when ΔG=0)
Coupling (ATP) very spontaneous coupled w/ a non-spontaneous reaction makes the non-spontaneous reaction go
Created by: melaniebeale