Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove Ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

CHEM 113- Unit 4

QuestionAnswer
Ion-Product Expression [M^n+]^p[Z^z-]^q (for compound MpXq)
Solubility-product constant Ksp
Sulfides Ksp [HS-][OH-][Cd2+]
S molar solubility (s^3, 4s^3, etc.)
Can you compare Ksp for different moles? No! Compare S
Common ion effect if you add a common ion from the insoluble substance, it DECREASES its solubility (equilibrium)
pH & Ksp anions of weak acids have increased solubility at low pH
if Qsp>Ksp... more reactants will be formed
if Ksp>Qsp... more products will be formed
Ligands Lewis Bases stuck on metal cations (often H2O)
2 steps in forming a complex ion 1) dissolve ionic compound-> Ksp (Ag+) 2) form complex ion-> Kf (Ag(H2O)2))
Kf formation constant (of complex ions)
Koverall Ksp x Kf
First Law of Thermodynamics the conservation of energy (transferred, but never created or destroyed)
Second Law of Thermodynamics it is impossible to transfer heat to work
ΔSuniverse is always >0
ΔSuniverse= ΔSsystem+ΔSsurroundings
Entropy change in disorder
Phase change entropy gas= largest ΔS
Salt dissolution entropy dissolved= largest Δ
Microstates (w) #of locations^number of atoms
Boltzmann Equation S=k(lnw) *k= (R/avogadro's #)
Third Law of Thermodynamics a perfect crystal has zero entropy at 0°K
Entropy of fusion solid->liquid
Entropy of vaporization liquid->gas
Vibrational motion more atoms=more ways to "vibrate"=higher entropy
ΔSrxn change that occurs when reactants/products are in their standard states
ΔSrxn= ΣmSproducts-ΣmSreactants
ΔSsurroundings= -ΔHsystem/T
(ΔSuniverse) it is spontaneous if it's positive
ΔG is measured in kJ/mol
ΔG>0 not spontaneous
ΔG<0 spontaneous
ΔG=0 at equilibrium
ΔG= ΔHsystem-T(ΔSsystem) or... ΣmΔGproducts-ΣmΔGreactants
Standard states 1 atm/1M, 298K, most stable form (° symbol)
NON standard state problems use ΔG=ΔH-TΔS equation
Cross-over temperature T= ΔH/ΔS (when ΔG=0)
Coupling (ATP) very spontaneous coupled w/ a non-spontaneous reaction makes the non-spontaneous reaction go
Created by: melaniebeale