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Chem110 Test 7

Review for Chem110 Test 7 Deltech-Owens Campus

Thermodynamics is __ The study of energy, work, and heat.
A system contains __ the process under study
Surroundings are the rest of the universe
First law of Thermodynamics Energy of the universe is constant
Another name for the first law of thermodynamics is The law of conservation of energy
Every chemical bond is really __ stored chemical energy
Bonds must __ for a reaction to occur break
Breaking bonds requires __ energy
When energy from a system is released into its surroundings, this is called an __ reaction. exothermic
When energy from a system's surroundings is released into the system, this is called an __ reaction endothermic
If the energy required to break a chemical bond is __ than the energy released when the bonds are formed, there is a net __ of energy. This is a __ reaction. less, release, exothermic
If the energy required to break a chemical bond is __ than the energy released when the bond is formed, there will be an __ __ of energy. This is a __ reaction. larger/greater, external supply, endothermic
If the equation ends with +#kcal (or C), it is __. exothermic
If the equation begins with #kcal (or C), it is __. endothermic
Enthalpy represents __ heat energy
The energy difference between the products and reactants of a chemical reaction is __ enthalpy
When energy is __, the enthalpy charge is __. (As in -#kcal or -C.) This is an __ reaction. released, negative, exothermic
When energy is __, the enthalpy charge is __. (As in +#kcal or +C. )This is an __ reaction. absorbed, positive, endothermic
When a reaction occurs without any external energy input, it is a __ reaction. spontaneous
Most __ reactions are spontaneous. exothermic
__ is used to predict if a reaction will occur. Thermodynamics
Besides thermodynamics, another factor used to predict whether a chemical reaction will occur or not is called __. entropy
Exothermic reactions are always __. negative
T or F: Fuel oil burned in a furnace is an example of an endothermic reaction. false, it's exothermic
The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics says that __ the universe spontaneously tends toward increasing disorder or randomness
Entropy is __ a measure of the randomness of a chemical system
When a system has high entropy, that means it is __ highly disordered, or lacking a repeating and regular pattern
When a system has low entropy, that means it is __ well organized. It may have a crystalline structure.
There is no such thing as __ entropy. negative
A positive (+) ΔS means an __ in the disorder of the reaction. increase
A negative (-) ΔS means a __ in the disorder of the reaction. decrease
Name 3 processes that have positive entropy. melting, vaporization, dissolution (they all have a +ΔS)
If a reaction is exothermic and has a +ΔS, then it is __ spontaneous
If a reaction is endothermic and has a -ΔS, is is __ nonspontaneous
If a reaction is not endothermic or exothermic, then it is spontaneous or nonspontaneous based on the relative size of __ and __. ΔH and ΔS
Gas has __ entropy than water. greater or more (gas is highly disorganized)
A solid has __ entropy than water. less (solids are highly organized)
Free energy is represented by a __ ΔG
Free energy represents the __ combined contribution of the enthalpy and entropy values for a chemical reaction
Free energy predicts __ of chemical reactions spontaneity
Negative ΔG is always __ spontaneous
Positive ΔG is always __ nonspontaneous
In an equation, the letter T stands for __ temperature in Kelvin
What do you need to know to predict the sign of ΔG of a reaction? ΔH and ΔS
Calorimetry is the __ measurement of heat energy changes in a chemical reaction
A calorimeter is a __ device which measures heat changes in calories
The change in temperature measured by a calorimeter is used to measure the __ loss or gain of heat
In an exothermic reaction, heat that has been released is __ absorbed
In an endothermic reaction, reactants __ heat from the solution absorb
Specific heat, or SH, is the __ number of calories of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of the substance by 1 degree C
Regarding specific heat, what is the formula you must remember? Q=ms X ΔT X SHs (the lower case s stands for solution, or for our purposes, water)
The specific heat (HS) for water is __ 1.0 cal/g degrees C
To determine heat released or absorbed, you need to know __ specific heat, total grams of solution, temperature change (did it increase or decrease?)
If you see a word problem on the test, remember that __ are not needed to work the equation. moles
A capital C, or kilocalorie, is also used as a __ calorie. nutritional
Thermal kinetics is the study of __ the rate, or speed, of chemical reactions.
Kinetic information represents changes over __ time
Change in __ can be used to monitor the progress of a chemical reaction color
The __ of color change can help us calculate the rate of the chemical reaction rate
If sufficient energy is available, chemical bonds will break and atoms will recombine in a __ __ arrangement lower energy
An __ collision is one that produces product molecules effective
Activation energy is the __ minimum amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction.
An activated complex is __ an extremely unstable, short-lived intermediate complex
An activated complex cannot be __ from the reaction mixture isolated
Activation energy is the __ between the energy of the reactants and that of the activated complex. difference
What are the 6 factors that affect reaction rate? 1) structure of reacting species 2) molecular shape and orientation 3) concentration of reactants 4) temp of reactants 5) physical state of reactants 6) presence of a catalyst
In a reaction, oppositely charged species reactant more __ rapidly
Ions with the same charge __ do not react
The magnitude of the activation energy is related to __ bond strength
The rate of a reaction will generally increase as the concentration __ increases
A higher kinetic energy means a __ of these collisions will result in product formation higher percentage
Reactions are fastest in the __ state and slowest in the __ state. liquid, gaseous
A catalyst is a __ substance that increases the reaction rate of a chemical reaction.
The catalyst __ __ __ the final product of the reaction and undergoes no net change. does not alter
Equilibrium reactions are __ incomplete chemical reactions.
When a chemical reaction is complete, that means that all __ reactants have been converted to products.
Physical equilibria reactions are __ reversible
Examples of reversible reactions, or physical equilibrium reactions, include: dissolved oxygen in lake water, stalactite formation, sugar dissolved in water
A reversible reaction is a process that __ can occur in both directions and uses the the double arrow symbol
You have dynamic equilibrium when the rate __ of the forward process in a reversible reaction is exactly balanced by the rate of the process in reverse
T or F: if you add 100 g of sugar to 100 mL of water, nothing happens. False, even though it may appear that way
Equilibrium occurs when the rate __ of reactant depletion is equal to the rate of product depletion
LeChateleir's Principle says that __ if a stress is placed on a system at equilibrium, the system will respond by altering the equilibrium composition to minimize the stress
The term "stressed," as applied in LeChateleir's Principle, means that the equilibrium will be __ disturbed
Pressure affects equilibrium only if one or more of the substances in the reaction are __ gases
The relative number of gas moles on reactant and product side must __ to effect pressure differ
When pressure goes up, it shifts to the side with __ less moles of gas
A catalyst affects the rate of both the forward and reverse reaction to the __ extant same
Created by: IsaacJ