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Psych 204 final

Survey Research Design Use surveys to obtain a description of a group of individuals
Four Steps to Constructing a Survey Develop Survey Questions, Assemble Survey questions, Select who will answer the survey, and administer the survey
Open-ended Questions(step 1) Introduce a topic and allow participants to respond in their own words
Restricted Questions (step 1) Present participants with a limited number of response alternatives. Writing effective restrictive questions that are not confusing or misleading.
Basics of Assembling questions (step 2) Demographics questions should appear at the end. Sensitive questions should appear in the middle. Questions of the same topics should be grouped. Format should be simple and uncluttered. Vocabulary and language style should be easy to understand.
Response Set (Step 2) The tendency to answer all questions the same way. (example - Authoritarian F Scale)
Carry Over or Question Order Effect (Step 2) When earlier questions influence response to later questions
Socially Desirable Responding (Step 2) The tendency to respond not as one feels or behaves but in a socially desirable manner
Context Effect (Step 2) The influence of the context of the questionnaire on responding
Representative Sample (Step 3) This means the sample closely matches the characteristics of population
Biased Sample (Step 3) A sample that is no representative of the population
Random Sampling (Step 3) This eliminates the possibility that the sample is biased by the preferences of the person selecting the sample
Simple Random Sampling (Step 3) This involves using a technique such as random digit dialing
Stratified Random Sampling (Step 3) Involves ensuring that the sample represents the population on selected STRATA variables. EX 70% females is needed
Cluster Sampling (Step 3) Requires randomly selecting naturally occuring clusters to be surveyed
Convenience Sample (Step 3) Can work if there is no reason to believe there is a bias in the sampling technique
Face to Face survey (Step 4) face to face
Non Response Bias (Step 4) Whether people who return surveys are representative of all who could receive them
Internet Survey (Step 4) Should you administer this anonymously
Literature Reviews These combine the results of many studies (greater power and value) These permit researchers to address broad questions
Narrative Review Can combine different kinds of studies to address these broad theoretical questions. There is a danger with narrative reviews can cherry pick among research findings.
Meta-Analysis Statistically combines results from comparable studies that address the same question. Example Cochrane laboratories
Steps to conducting a Meta-Analysis Pick a topic, Collect all relevant data, statistically calculate on effect size, and effect size statistics are summed and average
Pick a Topic (Step 1) Try to pick something you are knowledgeable in
Collect all relevant quantitative studies (Step 2) State exclusion/inclusion criteria for studies explicitly. Do not rely on computer searches
Statistics (Step 3) Meta-analysis involves calculating on effect size statistics
Effect Size Stats are summed and averaged (Step 4) Is the overall effect size different from zero? are the effect sizes heterogeneous
Four conclusions from any literature review 1. Hypothesis is correct 2. The hypothesis is not proven but is currently the best guess 3. No conclusion, not enough evidence or the evidence is flawed 4. The hypothesis is wrong
Apples and Oranges (3 criticisms) Combining results from studies that measure different things, manipulate different variables, and test different subjects
File Drawer (3 criticisms) The failure to obtain all or a representative sample of the population of studies. (Foreign language studies, unpublished studies, statistically non-significant results)
Garbage In, Garbage Out (3 criticisms) Combining poor studies can result in a distorted pictures
Fail Safe N Number of studies unpublished that could reverse study
Code Studies for Quality systems for assessing quality of studies
Two types of Articles The article you planned to write when you designed the study and the article that makes the most sense now that you have seen the results
Organize Presentation 1. write in english prose, not jargon 2. Do not plunge readers into the problem(lead them step by step) 3. Use examples to illustrate theoretical points 4. Open with a statement about people
Method The method section should provide sufficient detail for replication. Should place reader in the study. Subsections of the method section include participants as well as materials and procedures. Report information on reliability and validity carefully.
Method 2 Provide sample questions from survey. Report on ethical issues.
Results Don't throw numbers at the readers. Result section should tell a story. Remind us of hypothesis, method and procedures. Tell the answer to the hypothesis in English. Then and only then report statistics.
Discussion Tell us what you have learned. Point out implications. Point out limitations. Have a big finish.
Title and Abstract Titles should be informative and catchy. The abstract should be a mini version of the paper.
Tell a good story(Twelve Tips for Authors)
Don't have too many subjects (Twelve Tips for Authors)
Create an Outline (Twelve Tips for Authors)
Provide a Good Title (Twelve Tips for Authors)
Write an interesting and self contained abstract (Twelve Tips for Authors)
Shorter is Better (Twelve Tips for Authors)
Don't Paralyse the reader with your result section (Twelve Tips for Authors)
Beware of the curse of knowledge (Twelve Tips for Authors)
Revision is the key to effective writing (Twelve Tips for Authors)
Find appropriate models (Twelve Tips for Authors)
Constantly work to improve your writing (Twelve Tips for Authors)
Find a good editor (Twelve Tips for Authors)
Descriptive Statistics Describe the characteristics of a set of scores
Mean Average score
Median Middle score
Mode Most frequent score
Measures of central tendency mean, median, mode
Standard Deviation A quantity calculated to indicate the extent of deviation for a group as a whole.
Inferential Statistics Allow us to generalize from samples to populations. Separates signal from noise.
Sir Ronald Fisher Father of inferential statistics.
Milk or Tea experiment milk or tea. decided that if the event occurs less than 5% of the time by chance p < 0.05
Probability The chance that something will occur
Students T-Test Puts fishers p < 0.05 into equation
Anova For more than two groups
Pearson's Correlation tests the relationship between variables. Signal is the strength of the relationship between variables
Regression To predict on variable from another variable
Univariate Statistics Examine on dependant variable
Multivariate Statistics examine multi dependent analysis (factor analysis)
Qualitative Research Roots in sociology and anthropology. Focuses on social problems. Seeks to develop a holistic picture of social problems. Informants as basis for reports. Trustworthiness of their data less interested in reliability and validity.
Confirmability The extent the report is accurate, unbiased and unconfirmable.
Dependability The extent to which the same report would result if the study was replicated
Credibility The accuracy of the description of subjects of the report
Transferability The extent to which the report can be generalized to other settings and groups
Grounded Theory Goes beyond description and interpretation to build theories
Coding The heart of grounded theory
Open Coding The researcher categorizes the phenomena being studied
Axial Coding Finding links between categories from open coding
Selective Coding Identifying a core category and relating other categories to this core
Process and Transactional System Try to build the theory
Participatory Action Research Knowledge is rooted in social relationships and produced collaboratively through action
Mixed Methods Quanitative and qualitative
Training as a researcher The first step is to obtain a bachelors honour degree. Then graduate school. Then get a job.
Psychology is merely common sense(Six reasons why people think psychologists are not scientists)
Psychology does not use the scientific method (Six reasons why people think psychologists are not scientists)
Psychology cannot yield meaningful generalizations because everyone is unique (Six reasons why people think psychologists are not scientists)
Psychology cannot yield repeatable results (Six reasons why people think psychologists are not scientists)
Psychology cannot make precise predictions (Six reasons why people think psychologists are not scientists)
Psychology is not useful to society (Six reasons why people think psychologists are not scientists)
Created by: davidvachon1
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