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Chemistry Vocabulary

Matter Anything that has volume (takes up space) and has mass
Atom The smallest unit of an element that has all of the properties of that element containing a nucleus within an electron cloud
Electron Cloud All of the area surrounding the nucleus where electrons are found
Nucleus The tiny very dense positively charged region in the center of an atom made up of protons and neutrons
Electrical Charge A form of charge designated negative positive or neutral (without charge) that is found on the subatomic particles that make up all atoms
Proton A positively charged subatomic particle of the nucleus of an atom that contributes to the mass of the atom
Neutron A subatomic particle of the nucleus of an atom that is without charge that contributes to the mass of an atom
Electron A negatively charged subatomic particle of the electron cloud that is involved in the formation of chemical bonds (almost negligible mass)
Subatomic Particles Particles that are smaller than the atom (positive negative and neutral)
Chemical Formula A shorthand notation that uses chemical symbols and numbers as subscripts to represent the type and number of atoms that are present in the smallest unit of the substance
Balanced Equations chemical reaction in which both sides of the equation contain equivalent numbers of atoms of each element. The mass and the charge must be balanced on both sides of the reaction (law of conservation of mass)
Atomic Mass The average mass of protons and neutrons in an element
Nuclear Model of the Atom A conceptual model of the atom in which a positively charged nucleus is surrounded by electrons
Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus of one atom of the element (top number)
Valence Electrons The electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom that influence how an element will react with other substances
Energy Level Shells/Orbitals Regions around the nucleus of an atom where electrons may be found
Net Charge The sum of negative and positive charges
Ions Form as a result of the loss or gain of electrons identified by the overall net charge
Property The physical and chemical characteristics of a substance or element
Reactivity Rate at which a chemical substance tends to undergo a chemical reaction significantly influenced by valence electrons of the reacting substances
Valence Shell The outermost shell (or shells) determine the chemical properties of the atom (group number)
Metals Most elements are these they are typically solid shiny malleable and good conductors
Nonmetals Elements typically not shiny usually a gas or brittle solid not malleable and poor conductors
Periodic Table of Elements A table showing the chemical elements arranged according to their atomic numbers
Groups The vertical columns on a Periodic Table that arrange the elements by the number of electrons that are in the outermost shell
Period The horizontal rows in a Periodic Table that classify the elements by the number of electron shells
Metalloids Elements that have properties of both metals and nonmetals sometimes referred to as semiconductors
Noble Gases Unreactive nonmetals in Group 18 of the Period Table
Electron Shell A specific area where electrons of the same energy level are found
Element A pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means
Atomic Symbol A one- or two-letter notation used to represent an atom of a particular element
Subscript A number written below and to the right of a chemical symbol that shows the number of a specific type of atom present
Coefficient A number placed in front of a chemical symbol or formula in order to balance the equation
Reactants A substance that takes part in and undergoes change during a reaction On the left side of a formula
Products A substance produced during a chemical reaction On the right side of the formula
Law of Conservation of Mass The mass of all reactants must equal the mass of all products mass is neither created nor destroyed. Balanced equation
Mass The amount of matter an object contains measured in grams
Evidence of a Chemical Change Noticeable: the four signs of a chemical reaction are: production of (1) gas (2) heat/light formation of (3) precipitate or a (4) new substance
Substance Elements or compounds that can only be separated or combined to make substances with new properties by means of a chemical reaction
Endothermic A reaction that gets cold because heat energy is absorbed from the surrounding area
Exothermic A reaction that gets hot as heat energy is released to the surrounding area
Synthesis When two elements react to form a compound. Root: to make
Decomposition When a compound breaks down into two substances (an element and a compound)
Combustion When an organic substance combines with oxygen and releases large amounts of heat and light energy
Mechanical Change Substances undergo a physical change. Ex. dissolving in water
Ductile metal made into wire easily
Malleable metal that can be hammered
Insulator nonmetal poor conductor holds heat in
Conductor metal heat & electricity travels through it easily
Brittle nonmetal cannot be hammered or made into wire because it falls apart easily
Created by: McLeanScience



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