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Transition Metals

Properties, Complex Ion

What are the 4 features of Transition Elements: They have variable Oxidation States, They show Catalytic Activity, They form Coloured ions and they form Complex Ions with Ligands.
Define Transition Element: Forms at least 1 stable Ion with a Partially filled D Sub-Shell.
What is a Complex Ion? This is when a transition metal is surrounded by other ions or molecules and bonded by co-ordinate bonds.
Define Ligand: An atom, ion or molecule with lone pairs of electrons which can use these lone pairs to form Dative Covalent bonds with a metal ion.
What is the Coordination Number: The number of ligands which surround a Metal Ion.
What are the three types of Ligand: Unidentate, Bidentate and Multidentate.
Unidentate: A ligand which is capable of forming 1 Coordinate bond (H2O, NH3, Cl-, OH- etc).
Bidentate: A ligand which is capable of forming two coordinate bonds (Ethan-1,2-Diamine etc).
Multidentate Ligands: Ligands which are capable of forming more than 2 coordinate bonds. Such as EDTA4-/
Name a Multidentate ligand and give a use for it: EDTA4-, used in medicine to remove Transition metals from body as it forms 6 coordinate bonds.
Describe how Haemoglobin is a Fe2+ ion surrounded by a multidentate ligand.
What are the four shapes of complex ions I am likely to come across: Octahedral, Tetrahedral, Square Planar and Linear.
How do Octahedral shapes come about? Smaller ligands (such as H2O or OH- etc) can fit 6 of themselves around a Metal ion, and the maximum amount of bonds will be formed in order to release the max amount of energy.
How do Tetrahedral or Square Planar shapes come about? The larger Ligands, such as Cl-, do not allow as many as the small to be around one metal ion so, a max of 4 will be around these ions.
Name the two common ions that are Tetrahedral: [CoCl4]2- and [CuCl4]2-
Name the anti cancer drug that is Square planar: Cis-Platin.
Name a simple linear complex and its use: [Ag(NH3)2]+, used in Tollens reagent.
Created by: mjwilson1988