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Heterogeneous Mixture A nonuniform mixture that has regions of different composition.
Homogeneous Mixture A uniform mixture that has the same composition throughout.
Solution A mixture that contains particles the size of a typical ion or small molecule.
Colloid A mixture that contains particles that range in diameter from 2 to 500nm.
Solute A substance that is dissolved in Water
Solvent The substance in which another substance (the solute) is dissolved
Hygroscopic An Ionic compound that attracts water so strongly that they pull water vapor from humid air to become hydrated.
Saturated Solutions A solution that contains the max amount of dissolved solute at Equilibrium
Solubility The max amount of substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specified temperature.
Supersaturated Solution Solids that are more soluble at high temperature than at low temperature.
Henry Law The solubility (or concentration) of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas over the liquid
HENRY'S EQUATION C/Pgas=K Gas + Solvent =(both ways) Solution[PRESSURE INCREASES] C1/P1=C2/P2=K
Mass/Mass percent concentration Concentration expressed as the # of grams of solute per 100 grams of solution.
m/m% m/m%concentration=Mass of solute(g) -----------------*100 Mass of solution(g)
v/v% v/v%concentration=Volume of solute (mL) ---------------------*100 Volume of solution (mL)
m/v% m/v%concentration=Mass of solute (g) ------------------ Volume of solution (mL)
Parts per million(ppm) ppm=Mass of solute (g) Same equation 4 -----------------*10^6 Volume (mL) Mass of solution (g)
Parts per billion (ppb) ppb=Mass of solute(g) same equation 4 ------------------*10^9 Volume (mL) Mass of solution (g)
Molarity The # of moles of solute dissolved per Liter of solution.
Molarity Equation Molarity (M)= Moles of solute ----------------- Liters of solution
Molarity Equation #1 Moles of solute ---------------- Volume of solution (L)
Molarity Equation #2 Moles of solute * Volume of solution
Molarity Equation #3 Volume of solution=Moles of solution ------------------- Molarity
Dilution DEFINITION The ratio of the initial and final solution volumes (Vc/Vd)
Dilution Pt1 # of moles= Molarity (mol/L) x Volume (L) M= Moles/Volume
Dilution pt2 Md=Mc*Vc/Vd where Vc/Vd is a dilution factor
Dilution pt3 Since McMv=MdVd Then Vc=Vd*Md/Mc
Electrolyte substances that conduct an electric current when dissolved in water
Strong elpaectrolyte ionic substances that ionize completely when dissolved in water
Weak electrolyte molecular substances that are partially ionized
Nonelectrolyte Molecular substances that do not produce ions when dissolved in water
Equivalent (Eq) For ions, the amount equal to 1 mol of charge
Gram-Equivalent (g-Eq) For ions, the molar mass of the ion divided by the ionic charge.
EX. One gram-equivalent of ion=Molar mass of ion (g) -------------------- charge on ion
Created by: E.Coleman