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Radiochem Review-B/U

Radiochemisry Review-backup

QuestionAnswer
Q: What are the 3 mechanisms for release of fission products to the reactor coolant under normal and accident conditions. A: RED: Recoil, equilibrium, diffusion
Q; What type of demins does Peach Bottom use in the condenste. How many? A: Powdex filter Demin units (U2-12/U3-10)
Q: The I-131/I-133 ratio changes in relation to the magnitude of a fuel defect. How? A: Increased ratio indicates no or small defect, decreased ratio indicates larger fuel defect
Q: Would we use the gross release method or the isotopic analysis method for gaseous releases of noble gases? Why? A: More conservative.
Q: what trips at +46 inches? A: +46” Shuts down RCIC Trips HPCI Trips Main Turbine +49” (Normal Range/DFCS) +46” (Wide Range) Trips RFPTs +49” (Normal Range/DFCS) +46” (Wide Range)
Q: What is normal and high Rx level? A: +29” Reactor Hi level alarm .............. +23” Normal level
Q: What is the definition of TRANSURANIC? A: ...of, relating to, or being an element with an atomic number greater than that of uranium
Q. AG-110M is ? Why is it in the isotopic analysis of our reactor coolant after being shutdown 30 days? A. Silver 110 metastable. .....Find out.
Q. Ag is ? Why is it in the isotopic analysis of our reactor coolant after being shutdown 30 days? A. Gold (Ag) .....Find out.
Q. Eu is? Why is it in the isotopic analysis of our reactor coolant after being shutdown 30 days? A. Europium (Eu) .....Find out.
Q. As is? Why is it in the isotopic analysis of our reactor coolant after being shutdown 30 days? A. Arsnic (As) .....Find out.
Q. Re is? Why is it in the isotopic analysis of our reactor coolant after being shutdown 30 days? A. Rhenium (Re) .....Find out.
Q. W is ? Why is it in the isotopic analysis of our reactor coolant after being shutdown 30 days? A. Tungsten (W) ..........Find out.
Q. Hf is? Why is it in the isotopic analysis of our reactor coolant after being shutdown 30 days? A. Hafnium (Hf) .....Find out.
Q. Sulfate and Sulfite. What are they normally associated with in the boiling water nuclear plant? A. Sulfate is a reactor water contaminate and Sulfite is added to the aux boilers to scavenge oxygen.
Q. What are three sources of coolant activity? A. Fission products, Water activation products, Activated corrosion products
Q. What is Cs? Where in the periodic table? What is it melting point? A. Cesium. Atomic number 55. It is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with a melting point of 28 °C (82 °F), which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature.
Q. Where does Cs-137 come from? A. Caesium-137 cesium-137,formed as one of the more common fission products by the nuclear fission of uranium-235 and other fissionable isotopes in nuclear reactors, weapons.
Q. Why is Cs-137 a problem? A. It is among the most problematic of the short-to-medium-lifetime fission products because it easily moves and spreads in nature due to the high water solubility of caesium's most common chemical compounds, which are salts.
Q. Since 1967, caesium has been widely used in _______ . A. Since 1967, caesium has been widely used in highly accurate atomic clocks. In 1967 the International System of Units isolated two specific wave counts from an emission spectrum of caesium-133 to co-define the second and the meter.
Q. What are the chemical properties of Ceasium? Where is it on the periodic table? A. Caesium metal is highly reactive and very pyrophoric. Cs is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal in group 1 with Na. It easily moves and spreads in nature due to the high water solubility of caesium's most common chemical compounds, which are salts.
Q. What is the half-life of Cs-137? What does it decay to? A. 30.17 years. Decays to Ba-137 Barium has an atomic number of 56 so it is directly to the right on the periodic table.
Q. The biological half-life of caesium is _________ . A. The biological half-life of caesium is rather short at about 70 days.
Q. What are the two types of Gamma Spec Calibrations? A. Efficiency and Energy.
Q. Should the energy calibration be linear? What may make it change slightly? A. Yes. Room temp, humidity, line voltage
Q. Efficiency Calibration. Where can you get a source? A. Must be traceable. Paperwork will state actual gammas/ second. Must know the "born on" date for proper calibration of current activity.
Q. What type of detectors do we have at Peach Bottom Chemistry? A. High Purity Germanium. (HPGe)
Q. What are the two most commonly used types of gamma ray detectors? A. NaI (TI) and HPGe
Q. What are the differences between NaI (TI) and HPGe detectors? A. Efficiency, ease of operation, cost, identification of individual gamma rays (resolution)
Q. What are two types of dead time? A. Detector dead time and ADC dead time.
Q. What happens when the system dead time is too large (that is, electronically)? A. Find out
Q. When our gamma spec says the dead time is 10%, what does that mean? A. Find out.
Q. What is the photoelectric effect? A. The photoelectric effect is the observation that many metals emit electrons when light shines upon them. Electrons emitted in this manner can be called photoelectrons. The entire energy of the gamma ray is transferred to the ejected electron.
Q. Instability in a atom is....? A. Instability: Nucleus contains an excess of energy (in reference to its Atomic Mass vs. Atomic Number or neutron to proton ratio) above that which is required for the nucleus to remain stable.
Q. A. Curie is defined as? A becquerel (Bq) is defined as? A. Curie: A unit quantity of any radioactive nuclide in which 3.7E10 disintegrations occur per second. A becquerel (Bq) is 1 disintegration/ sec.
Q. Radioactivity is defined as? A. Radioactivity (Webster’s): The property possessed by some elements (most isotopes) of spontaneously emitting alpha or beta rays and sometimes also gamma rays by the disintegration of the nuclei of atoms.
Q. What is an Isotope? A. Isotopes are atomic species of the same atomic number but having a different number of neutrons therefore having different mass numbers/atomic weights, atomic mass.
Q. What is the atomic number of Florine and Chlorine? A. Florine is #9 and Chlorine directly below is #17
Q. the line of stability is curved to the right. why? Draw the line of stability. A. Large stable nuclei have N:P ration of about 3:2. Draw: ZvsN 45*angle. The lie of stability curves to the right.
Q. Is Cs-133 a health risk? Is Cesium essential for life? A. Health effects: Cesium is not regarded as essential to the health of plants or animals, nor does it present a hazard to them.
Q. Name the naturally occurring isotopes of Cesium (Cs). A. Only one naturally occurring isotope of cesium is known, cesium-133.
Q. How abundant is Cesium? A. The abundance of cesium in the Earth's crust has been estimated at about 1 to 3 parts per million. It ranks in the middle of the chemical elements in terms of their abundance in the earth.
Q. What can Cesium be used for? A. Healthcare providers sometimes treat cancer patients with radioactive cesium (cesium-137). In industry, radioactive cesium is also used in instruments that measure thickness, moisture, and liquid flow. Cesium-133 is used in atomic clocks
Q. Cesium was discovered in what year? How many years before it was used in atomic clocks? Q. Cesium was discovered in 1860 by German chemists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff through spectroscopic analysis. 1967, 107 years after discovery it (Cs-133 was used in atomic clocks.
Created by: jimsutton5