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DNA

QuestionAnswer
EVIDENCE DNA IS HEREDITARY MATERIAL... PROVING: USING MICE A, BACTERIUM THAT CAUSED PNEUMONIA. THE 2 FORMS WHERE THE SAFE
EACH INDIVIDUAL INHERITS STRAIN R STRAIN AND THE HARMFUL FORM – S STRAIN.MICE INJECTED WITH LIVING R STRAIN AND DEAD S STRAIN. – BOTH GROUPS REMAINED HEALTHY.
BUT WHEN MICE INJECTED WITH BOTH ... THEY GOT PNEUMONIA.
THE SAFE FORM CAN MAKE TOXIN BUT DOESN'T HAVE THE INFO SO .... THE INFO MAY HAD BEEN PASSED FORM THE HARMFUL TO THE SAFE.
DNA CAN BE PASSED FROM ONE ... BACTERIUM TO ANOTHER BY VIRUSES.
ELECTRON MICROSCOPES PROVIDED IMAGES OF DNA... GOING FROM VIRUSES INTO BACTERIAL CELLS.
THE GENETIC INFO IS IN THE FORM OF... A SPECIFIC SEQUENCE OF BASES ALONG THE DNA MOL.
GENES DETERMINE THE PROTEINS... IN AN ORGANISM.
POLYPEPTIDE IS A ... SEQUENCES OF AMINO ACIDS.
WHY WASN’T 2 BASE PAIRS USED FOR CODE ... ONLY PRODUCED 16 POSIBLE CODES INADEQUATE.
AS CODE HAS 3 BASES CALLED TRIPLET CODE ... 64 POS CODES ONLY 20 AMINO .
IN EUKARYOTES MUCH OF DNA DOESN'T CODE FOR AMINO A CALLED... INTRON AND CAN OCCUR WITHIN GENE AND MULTIPLE REPEATS.
THE CODE IS KNOWN AS THE DEGENERATE CODES BECAUSE.... MOST AMINO A HAVE MORE THAN ONE TRIPLET CODE.
THE START OF THE SEQUENCE ON TRIPLET CODE ALWAYS ... METHIONINE , IT CAN BE REMOVED IF IT DOESN'T FORM PART OF THE FINAL POLYPEPTIDE.
TRIPLET CODES MARKS END OF POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN AND CALLED.. ‘STOP CODES’. THE CODE IS UNIVERSAL.
DNA AND CHROMOSOMES IN PROKARYOTES CELL .. E.G. BACTERIA, THE DNA MOLS ARE SMALLER, CIRCULAR AND NOT ASSOCIATED WITH PROTEIN MOLECULES. – SO DON’T HAVE CHROMOSOMES.
DNA IN EUKARYOTES ... IS LINEAR AN LARGER AND ARE ASSOCIATED WITH PROTEINS TO FORM CHROMOSOMES.
CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE: ONLY VISIBLE... WHEN CELL IS DIVIDING.,
CHROMOSIOMS APPEAR AS ... 2 THREADS HELD BY A CENTROMERE (HYDROGEN BONDS) AND CALLED CHROMATIDS.
THE DNA IN CHROMOSOMES ARE HELD IN POSITION BY... PROTEINS.THE CONSIDERABLE LENGTH OF DNA FOUND IN EACH CELL (AROUND 2M IN EVERY CELL).
HOW DOE’S DNA FIT IN CHROMOSOMES ... IS COILED AND FOLDED. THE HELIX IS WOUND AROUND PROTEINS TO FIX IT IN POSITION, THIS DNA PROTEIN COMPLEX IS THEN COILED. COILS FORM LOOPS – LOOPS COILS AND PACK TOGETHER TO FORM CHROMOSOMES.
WHY IS THE DNA COILED AND FOLDED ... THIS WAY A LOT OF DNA PACKED IN SINGLE CHROMOSOME. A SINGLE MOL OF DNA/2M.
THIS SINGLE DNA HAS MANY GENES ALONG LENGTH EACH GENE... OCCUPIES A SPECIFIC POSITION ALONG DNA MOLECULE.
CHROMOSOMES ALWAYS EQUAL COZ ... CHROMOSOME OCCUR IN PAIRS (HOMOLOGOUS PAIRS).
HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES COZ SEXUALLY PRODUCED ORGANISM CONTRIBUTE A SET OF CHROMOSOMES BY FUSION OF EGG AND SPERM.
MOTHERS AND FATHER CHROMOSOMES CALLED ... IN EGG(MATERNAL CHROMS), FATHER (PATERNAL CHROMS.)
IN MEIOSIS THE HALVING OF NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMES ENSURE EACH DAUGHTER CELL.... HAS ONE CHROMOSOMES FORM EACH HOMOLOGOUS PAIR. – SO EACH CELL RECEIVES ONE SET OF INFO FOR EACH CHARACTERISTIC.
WHEN THESE HAPLOID CELL COMBINE... THE DIPLOID STATE RESTORED, WITH PAIRED HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES IS RESTORED.
Created by: ufuoma