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CHAP 7/5

QuestionAnswer
STRENGTH OF HALIDE AS REDUCING AGENTS INCREASE FROM ... CL- TO I-. 2X- +2E-àX2.
WHY ARE CHLORINE IONS VERY DIFFICULT TO OXIDES ... COZ WEAK REDUCING AGENTS HARDER TO LOSE ELECTRON. OXIDISED BY KMAGANATE OR CLO- IONS IN DILUTE SULPHURIC ACID.
IS IT EASY TO OXIDISED A BR ION ...? YES , BROMIDE IONS MORE EASILY OXIXDISED BY, BY CL-, KDICHROMATE (VI) & KMAGANATE IN DILUTE SULPHURIC ACID.
IODIDE IONS STRONG REDUCING AGENTS SO ARE... OXIDISED BY MANY. E.G. FE2+ REDUCED TO FE3+ IODINE IONS IN SOLUTION. 2 HALF EQUATIONS ARE: 2I-(AQ) àI2(S) +2E- , FE3+(AQ) + E- à FE2+(AQ).
BECAUSE KBROMIDE IS COLOURLESS THE EQUATIONS ARE ... KBR +H2SO4 à HBR +KHSO4. 2HBR +H2SO4 àBR2 + SO2 +2H2O.
WHEN IODIDE PRODICED WHAT COLOUR FUMES... STEAMY FUMES OF IODIDE BUT MOSTLY VIOLET CLOUD OF IODINE VAPOUR & YELLOW SULPHUR. SMELL OF ROTTEN EGGS COZ HYDROGEN SULFIDE ALSO PRODUCED.
WHAT MAKES SMELL OF ROTTEN EGGS .. HYDROGEN SULFIDE.
TEST FOR HALIDES ... DILUTE NITRIC ACID IS ADDED TO SOLUTION OF UNKNOWN HALIDE UNTIL JUST ACIDIC. AG NITRATE SOLUTION ADDED. CL-,BR-,I- ALL PRODUCE A PRECIPITATE OF SILVER HALIDE.
WHAT COLOUR PRECIPITATE DOES HALIDES GIVE IN TEST ... CHLORIDE (INCLUDING HCL) GIVE A WHITE PRECIPITATE
SOLUBLE IN DILUTE AQUEOUS AMMONIA. BROMIDES GIVE CREAM PRECIPITATE WHICH IS INSOLUBLE IN DILUTE AQUEOUS AMMONIA BUT SOLUBLE IN CONCENTRATED AQUEOUS AMMONIA.
IODIDES GIVE PALE YELLOW PRECIPITATE INSOLUBLE IN BOTH DILUTE AND CONCENTRATED AQUEOUS AMMONIA.
WHY IS DILUTE NITRIC ACID ADDED TO SILVER HALIDE PRECIPITATE... TO PREVENT THE PRECIPITATION OF OTHER IONS (CARBONATE) BY SILVER IONS.
WHEN A MIXTURE OF H2 AN O2 IN A 2:1 RATIO IS IGNITED WITH A SPARK .... WATER IS PRODUCED AND NO UNCOMBINED HYDROGEN OR OXYGEN IS LEFT
NO UNCOMBINED HYDROGEN OR OXYGEN IS LEFT (THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF .... A COMPLETE AND IRREVERSIBLE REACTION) .2H2(G) +O2(G) à2H2O(L).
DO ALL REACTIONS REACT COMPLETELY ... NO.
MIXTURE OF HYDROGEN AND IODINE IN RATIO 1:1 HEATED TO 300 DEGREES HOW MUCH REACT ... ONLY 90% REACT. H2(G)+ I2(G) REVERSIBLE ARROW 2HI(G).
A REVERSIBLE REACTION IS ONE THAT ... GOES IN BOTHER DIRECTIONS AT THE SAME TEMPERATURE.
AT 300 DEGREES, OF REACTION OF H2 AND I2.... 10% WILL ALWAYS BE LEFT.
WHEN THERE IS NO FURTHER CHANGE IN AMOUNTS OF REACTANT AND PRODUCTS THE SYSTEM IS SAID... TO BE IN EQUILIBRIUM.
IF SYSTEM REACHES EQUILIBRIUM THERE IS NO ... FURTHER CHANGE IN THE CONCENTRATIONS OF REACTANTS AND PRODUCTS.
AS TIME PASSES THE CONC OF H2 AND I2 BECOME ... LOWER SO THE RATE OF REACTION DECREASES.
SOON AS REACTION OF H + I2 STARTS SOME ... SOME HI FORMED BEGINS TO DECOMPOSE TO HYDROGEN AND IODINE.
WHY AT FIRST IS REACTION IS SLOW ... COZ CONC OF HI SMALL, AS TIME PASSES THE RATE OF THE REVERSE REACTION INCREASE UNTIL BOTH FORWARD AND REVERSE ARE EQUAL AFTER THIS THERE IS NO CHANGE IN CONCENTRATION .
.BOTH FORWARD AND REVERSE ARE EQUAL AFTER THIS THERE IS NO CHANGE IN CONCENTRATION IS CALLED... THE SYSTEM IS IN EQUILIBRIUM
WITH THE FORWARD AND REVERSE REACTION TAKING PLACE AT THE SAME TIME THIS IS ... CALLED DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM.
H2+I2 à2HI EQUALS THE RATE OF THE 2HI àH2+I2.
DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM IS WHEN ... THE RATE OF THE FORWARDS AND REVERSE REACTION ARE EQUAL THUS THERE IS NO FURTHER CHANGE IN THE CONCENTRATIONS OF THE REACTANTS AND PRODUCTS.
DO REACTIONS STOP WHEN EQUILIBRIUM REACHED... NO
REACTION DON’T STOP WHEN EQUILIBRIUM REACHED CAN BE PROVED USING... RADIOACTIVE TRACERS,HI CONTAINING A TRACE OF RADIOACTIVE I-131 IS MIXED WITH I2 AND H2 IN EQUILIBRIUM PROPORTIONS AT 300 DEGREES AND LEFT FOR SEVERAL MINUTES.
Created by: ufuoma