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SHAPES AND MOLE8

QuestionAnswer
HYDROGEN BONDS ARE QUITE STRONG SO BP IS KINDA HIGH.
HYDROGEN FLUORINE INTERMOLECULAR HYDROGEN BONDS IS MUCH STRONG THAN THE DISPERSION AND DIPOLE DIPOLE – SO BOILING TEMP HIGHER THAN OTHER HYDROGEN HALIDES. ANOMALOUS
BOILING TEMP OF WATER ALSO ANOMALOUS COZ HIGHER THAN ANY OTHERS IN GROUP 6 & NH3.
THE HIGHER BOILING POINTS OF HF ,H20 AND NH3 COZ OF HYDROGEN BONDING.
THE INCREASES IN THE OTHERS IS DUE TO INCREASES ELECTRONS SO INCREASES DISPERSION FORCES.
ETHANOL HAS A MUCH HIGHER BOILING TEMP THAN... IT’S ISOMER METHOXYMETHANE CH3OCH3. ETHANOL HAS A –OH GROUP SO HYDROGEN BONDS CAN BE FORMED.
METHOXYMETHANE HAS NO POSITIVE... HYDROGEN ATOMS.
POLYMERS POLY(ETHANE) AND PVC EXAMPLES OF... POLYMERIC SOLIDS. VARIED CHAINED LENGTH & ARRANGED IN SEMI REGULAR FASHION.
THE CHAIN LENGTH OF A POLYMER SOFTEN IN STEAD OF MELT... IT’S VARIABLE & NOT FULLY CRYSTALLINE.
THERMOSETTING POLYMERS ARE ... HIGHLY CROSSED LINKED & DECOMPOSE NOT MELT USED AS SURFACES THAT CAN DEFORM WHEN HOT.
EXPLAIN WHY WATER HAS A ANOMALOUS BOILING TEMPERATURE? ALL GROUP 6 HYDRIDES ARE COVALENTLY BONDED,
BUT OXYGEN IS SMALL AND NEGATIVE IN WATER HYD ROGEN BONDS FORM BETWEEN SOME HYDROGEN AND NEGATIVE OXYGEN. SO THE INTERMOLECULAR FORCES BETWEEN WATER MOLECULES AND THE HYDROGEN BONDS ARE DISPERSION.
THE OTHER GROUP 6 ELEMENTS ARE TO.. LARGE NOT ELECTRONEGATIVE ENOUGH FOR HYDROGEN BONDING . THE INTERMOLECULAR FORCES ARE DISPERSION WHICH INCREASES AS NUMBER OF ELECTRONS INCREASE.
WHY DON’T OTHER GROUP 6 ELEMENT HYDROGEN BOND... THE OTHER GROUP 6 ELEMENTS ARE TO LARGE NOT ELECTRONEGATIVE ENOUGH FOR HYDROGEN BONDING.
SOLUBILITY: TO DISSOLVE SOLUTE PARTICLES ... MUST BE SEPARATED & SURROUNDED BY SOLVENT PARTICLES.
THE FORCES BETWEEN SOLUTE AND SOLVENT MUST BE STRONG ENOUGH TO ... OVERCOME SOLUTE SOLUTE AND SOLVENT SOLVENT FORCES.
THE ENERGY REQUIRED TO SEPARATE THE IONS IN SOLID ... IS COMPENSATED BY THE ENERGY RELEASED BY THE HYDRATION OF THE IONS. THE POSITIVE CATIONS ARE SURROUNDED BY NEG OXYGEN AND NEGATIVE ANIONS SURROUNDED BY HYDROGEN .THIS IS CALLED HYDRATION AND ENERGY RELEASED CALL THE HYDRATION ENERGY.
ENERGY RELEASED IN HYDRATION OF MOLECULE CALLED ... HYDRATION ENERGY.
IONIC SOLIDS DISSOLVE IN OTHER ... IONIC COMPOUNDS WHEN MOLTEN; THE EXTRACTION OF ALUMINIUM METAL USES A SOLUTION OF ALUMINIUM OXIDE IN MOLTEN CRYOLITE.
COMPOUNDS THAT FORM HYDROGEN BONDS ARE SOLUBLE IN WATER. THE FORM HYDROGEN BONDS.
ETHANOL AND ETHANOIC ACID ARE ... MISCRIBLE IN WATER.
THE O- IN ETHANAIOL FORMS A HB.. WITH H+ IN WATER.
PROPANONE CANNOT HYDROGEN BONDS WITH EACH OTHER ... COZ NO H+ ATOM. PROPANONE IS WATER SOLUBLE BECAUSE OF IT O- ATOM CAN FORM HB.
ETHANOCIC ACID IS ... MISCRIBLE WITH WATER IN ALL PROPORTIONS. BUT PENTANOIC ACID IS ALMOST INSOLUBLE BECAUSE OF ITS HYDROCARBON CHAIN OF FOUR CARBONS. THERE ARE ONLY 2 SITES C=O AND OH) FOR HYDROGEN BONDING AND 4 THE NON POLAR GROUPS.
EXAMPLES OF INSOLUABLE MOLECULES ARE... FLOUROMETHANE ALKENES, ALKANES (NON POLAR). NOT FORM HYDROGEN BONDS.
NON POLAR DISSOLVE NON POLAR SOLUTES ... AND POLAR SOLUTE DISSOLVE POLAR SOLUTES.
ALKANES SOLUBLE... IN EACH OTHER, CRUDE OIL IS COMPLEX MIXTURES OF ALKANES DISSOLVED IN EACH OTHER.
SOLUBILITIES CAN RESULT ... FROM REACTION
ALL HYDROGEN HALIDE DISSOLVE IN WATER COZ.. THEY FORM IONS –HYDRATED. HX(G) + H20(L)  H3O+(AQ) + X-(AQ).
HALOGENALKANES DISSOLVE IN... HOT AQUEOUS SODIUM HYDROXIDE THEY FORM ALCOHOL – THEN HYDROGEN BONDS WITH WATER: CH3CHBRCH3(L)+OH-(AQ)  CH3CH(OH)(AQ) + BR-(AQ)
HYDROGEN BONDS ARE STRONGER THAN DISPERSION SO MORE ENERGY NEEDED TO SEPARATE WATER MOLECULES THAN.. THUS WATER HAS HIGHER BOILING TEMP THAN OTHERS WHOSE BP INCREASES AS THE STRENGTHS OF DISPERSION INCREASE
ANSWERING QUESTIONS ABOUT MELTING AND BOILING TEMPS WORK OUT TYPE OF STRUCTURE. LIST ALL FORCES BETWEEN THE PARTICLES IN THE SUBSTANCES. IF DIFFERENT EXPLAIN BY ONE HAS ONE TYPE AND OTHER DOES.
ANSWERING QUESTIONS ABOUT MELTING AND BOILING TEMPS STATE AND EXPLAIN THE RELATIVE STRENGTHS OF FORCES. RELATE STRENGTHS OF FORCES TO ENERGY REQUIRED TO SEPARATED PARTICLES.
EXPLAIN WHY SULPHUR HAS A HIGHER MELTING POINT THAT PHOSPHORUS BUT SILICON HAS A HIGHER MELTING TEMPERATURE THAN BOTH SULPHUR AND PHOSPHORUS BOTH SULPHUR AND PHOSPHORUS HAVE SIMPLE MOLECULAR STRUCTURES WITH INSTANTANEOUS INDUCED DIPOLE DISPERSION FORCES BETWEEN MOLECULES. S8 HAS MORE ELECTRONS THAT PHOSPHORUS P4. SO DISPERSION FORCES BETWEEN S8 ARE STRONGER.
EXPLAIN WHY SULPHUR HAS A HIGHER MELTING POINT THAT PHOSPHORUS BUT SILICON HAS A HIGHER MELTING TEMPERATURE THAN BOTH SULPHUR AND PHOSPHORUS SO MORE ENERGY IS NEEDED TO SEPARATE THEM, SO HAS A HIGHER MELTING TEMPERATURE. SILICON HAS A GIANT ATOMIC STRUCTURE WITH STRONG COVALENT BONDS BETWEEN THE ATOMS, THESE HAVE TO BE BROKEN FOR SILICON TO MELT SO VERY HIGH MP.
Created by: ufuoma