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SHAPES AND MOLE7

QuestionAnswer
C60 SOMETIMES CALLED A BUCKYBALL.
C70 MOLECULES ARE SHAPED LIKE A RUGBY BALL HAS 25 HEXAGONS.
EVAPORATION OF A MOLECULE OF C60 C70 IN BENZENE PRODUCES RED CRYSTALS.2 C60 BUCKY BALLS CAN BE JOINED BY A FOUR MEMBERED CARBON RING TO MAKE C120.
C60 C70 ARE . FULLERENES
C60 C70 ARE LIKE ALKENES COZ ADDITION REACTIONS, WITH HYDROGEN AND HALOGENS ,C60 CAN BE POLYMERISED.
WHY CAN C60/70 BE IMPORTANT FORM MEDICINE A ATOM/ION CAN BE TRAPPED BETWEEN CARBON BALLRADIOACTIVE ARGON-224 ATOMS ARE TRAPPED INSIDE C60 MOLECULES AND COATED WITH TUMOUR TARGETING ANTIBODIES =
INJECTED INTO CANCER PATIENT. THE TREATED C60 IS ABSORBED BY THE CANCER CELLS - THE RADON ATOMS EMIT ALPHA RAYS WHICH DESTROY THE CANCER BUT HAVE SHORT RANGE OF RAYS SO DOE’S HARM OTHER ORGANS.
WHY DOES C-60 WORK IN TREATING CANCER IT’S ABSORBEDBY CANCER CELL. RADON EMMMITS ALPHA WHICH DESTROYS CANCER
CARBON NANOTUDES ARE CYLINDER OF INTERLOCKING HEXAGONS OF CARBON ATOMS. ONE END SEALED WITH FULLERENE MOLECULE , THE RADIUS IS A FEW NANOMETERS.
WHY ARE NANOTIBES SO SLIM THE RADIUS IS A FEW NANOMETERS/
NANOTUBES CAN BE USED TO DELIVER DRUGS TO SPECIFIC PARTS OF THE BODY.
CLUSTERS OF CARBON NANOTUDES ARE ONE HUNDRED TIMES AS STRONG AS STEEL WIRE –HAVE DELOCALISED ELECTRONS AND CAN CONDUCT ELECTRICITY.
SILICON HAS A SILICON CARBIDE DIAMOND LIKE STRUCTURE – HAS 4 CARBON ATOMS SURROUNDED BY 4 SILICON ATOMS.
QUARTZ SIO2 IS A GIANT ATOMIC LATTICE EACH SILICON BONDED TO 4 OXYGEN AND EACH OXYGEN HAS 2 SILICON.
ALL GIANT ATOMIC SUBSTANCES HAVE VERY HIGHER METING POINT COZ COVALENT BONDS HAVE TO BE BROKEN WHEN -SOLID IS MELTED OR SUBLIMED.
DIAMOND AND GRAPHITE SUBLIME AT OVER 3500DEGREES CELSIUS. AND QUARTS MELT AT 1610DEGREES CELSIUS.
GIANT ATOMIC SUBSTANCES ARE HARD BECAUSE COVALENT BONDS, USEFUL AS ABRASIVES E.G. SANDPAPER COATED WITH GRAINS OF QUARTZ, ABRASIVE CARBORUNDUM IS MADE OF SILICON CARBIDE.
ABRASIVE CARBORUNDUM MADE OF SILICON CARBIDE.
SIMPLE MOLECULES FORMED BY N2 O2 S8,P4 ,HALOGEN IN GROUP 7 ALL DIATOMIC. FONPSCL.
FORCES BETWEEN ELEMENTAL ELEMENTS ARE DISPERSION, THEY ALSO FORM SIMPLE MOLECULE STRUCTURES E.G. ALKANE , ALKENE , HALOGENOALKANES , HYDROGEN SUPLIDEH2S, PHOSPHORUS TRICHLORIDE PCL3 PHOSPHORUS PENTACHLORIDE AND SF6.
THE FORCES ARE DIPSPERISON IF MOLECULE IS POLAR & PERMANENT DIPOLE DIPOLE.
MELTING AND BOILING INTERMOLECULAR FORCES ARE WEAK SO SIMPLE MOLECULAR SUBSTANCES HAVE LOW MELTING AND BOILING TEMPS.
THE BOILING POINTS OF NOBLE GASES INCREASE DOWN THE GROUP HELIUM LOWEST.
WHY DOES BP INCREASE DOWN A GROUP BECAUSE OF DISPERSION FORCES. AND THE STRENGTH OF FORCES INCREASE AS... NUMBER OF ELECTRONS INCREASES.
BOILING TEMP OF ALKANES INCREASE AS THE NUMBER OF CARBON ATOMS INCREASE,. THE LARGE MOLECULES HAVE MORE POINTS OF CONTACT MORE DISPERSION FORCES SO TOTAL DISPERSION FORCE IS GREATER.
MORE POINT OF CONTACT MEANS MORE DISPERSION FORCES
DIPERSION FORCES INCREASE AS NO OF ELECTRON INCREASE
THE BOILING POINTS OF HYDROGEN HALIDES HCL-HI, INCREASE DUE TO STRENGTH OF DISPERSION FORCES INCREASES AS NUMBER OF ELECTRONS MORE. BUT H-F IS ANOMALOUS IT FORMS INTERMOLECULAR HYDROGEN BONDS.
H-F ,H2O,COOH ACIDS,NH3,AND ORGANIC AMINE ARE HYDROGEN BONDED
FOR THEM TO BOIL MOLECULES MUST BE SEPERAETED INVOLVES BREAKING THE HYDROGEN BONDS & DISPERSION FORCES.
Created by: ufuoma