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SHAPES AND MOLE5

QuestionAnswer
STRAND OF DNA HELD TO OTHER BY HYDROGEN BONDS.
THE BASE ADENINE LINKED TO THYMINE IN OTHER STRAND BY 2 HYDROGEN BONDS
CYTOSINE AND GUANINE HELD BY 3 HYDRO BONDS.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: DEPEND ON FORCES E.G. MELTING A SOLID 
A SOLID CONSIST OF A REGULAR ARRANGEMENT OF PARTICLE WHICH VIBRATE ABOUT A FIXED POINT AND CANNOT MOVE.
WHEN N SOLID HEATED VIBRATION INCREASED TEMPERATURE RISES, WHEN MELTING TEMPERATURE REACHED THE STRUCTURE OF SOLID BREAKS.
AS HEATING CONTINUOUS MORE SOLID MELTS TEMP STAYS SAME UNTIL SOLID HAS MELTED.
WHEN MOLTEN THE PARTICLE FREE TO MOVE AROUND.
IF FORCES BETWEEN PARTICLES ARE STRONG MUCH ENERGY IS REQUIRED TO BREAK DOWN THE STRUCTURE OF THE SOLID =HIGH MELTING POINT.
BOILING A LIQUID IN LIQUID THE PARTICLES ION ATOMS MOLECULES ARE CLOSE TOGETHER BUT POSITIONS ARE RANDOM AND THEY TUMBLE OVER EACH OTHER. PARTICLE MOVE AT DOFF SPEEDS AND COLLIDE.
WHEN LIQUID IS HEATED THE PARTICLE GAIN KINETIC ENERGY AND SPEED INCREASES. SOME PARTICLES MOVE FAST T ESCAPE AS GAS –(EVAPORATION).
WHEN BOILING TEMP REACHED SOME PARTICLE ESCAPE FROM MIDDLE OF LIQUID ,BUBBLES OF GAS PRODUCES AND LIQUID BOILS. IF THE FORCES BETWEEN THE PARTICLES STRONG MUCH ENERGY NEED TO SEPARATE = HIGH BOILING TEMPERATURE.
WHAT IS EVAPORATION OF A PARTICLE WHEN THE PARTICLES MOVE SO FAST THEY ESCAPEA AS GAS.
AN ELECTRIC CURRENT IS FLOW OF CHARGE (ELECTRONS ION).
NAME THE TYPES OF SOLID STRUCTURE (6) IONIC, GIANT ATOMIC, METALLIC ,HYDROGEN BONDED MOLECULAR ,POLYMERIC, SIMPLE MOLECULAR.
HOW ARE ION ARRANGED IONIC HAS REGULAR ARRANGEMENT – LATTICE
MELTING DEPENDS ON STRENGTH OF ION ION FORCES , IONS WITH 2+ 2- HAVE STRONG FORCES.
IONS WITH AS SMALL RADIUS STRONGER FORCES OF ATTRACTING THAN LARGE.
THE MELTING TEMP DEPENDS ON LATTICE STRUCTURE LATTICE WITH A ION RATIO 2:1 MELT AT A LOWER TEMPERATURE THAN EXPECTED.
WHY DON’T IONIC SOLID CONDUCT ION ARE FIXED IN LATTICE CANNOT MOVE. BUT WHEN MOLTEN /DISSOLVED CAN MOVE AROUND. (CONDUCT BY MOVEMENT OF CHARGE IONS), METALS ON MOVEMENT OF ELECTRONS).
MG2+ HAS A SMALLER RADIUS THAN CA2= SO STRONGER FORCE OF ATTRACTION.
GIANT ATOMIC SUBSTANCES /NETWORK COVALENT ARE LINKED BY COVALENT BONDS. CARBON HAS 2 MAIN FORMS- IN DIAMOND EACH CARBON ATOM HAS 4 SIGMA BONDS TO 4 OTHER CARBON IN A GIANT TETRAHEDRAL ARRANGEMENT – 109.5,
DIAMOND HAS HIGH MELTING PINT BECAUSE EACH CARBON BONDED TO 4 OTHERS(COVALENTLY).
GRAPHITE ARRANGEMENT EACH CARBON ATOM BONDED BY 3 OTHER BY SIGMA BONDS FORMING INTERLOCKING HEXONAL RINGS.
THE 4TH ELECTRON IN GARPHITE ... IS IN THE P ORBITAL WHICH FORMS A DELOCALISED CLOUD ABOVE AND BELOW THE RINGS.
WHY DOES GARPHITE SLIDE THE PLANAR RINGS ARE WEAKLY BONDED BY LONDON FORCES SO CAN SLIDE OVER EASILY.(THIS IS WHY PENCIL LEAVES A MARK).
THE DELOCALISE ELECTRONS ALLOW GRAPHITE IT TO CONDUCT ELECTRICITY.
C60 – DISCOVERED BY FIRING A LASER AT A DISC OF CARBON AND CONDENSING THE VAPOUR FORMED CONSIST OF 20 INTERLOCKING HEXAGONS AND 12 PENTAGON EACH CARBON HAS 3 SIGMA BONDS AND THE 4TH ELECTRON IS DELOCALISED.
Created by: ufuoma
 

 



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