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SHAPES AND MOLE3

QuestionAnswer
TO DRAW OCTAHEDARL ONE LINE GOING UP AND DOWN, 2 WEDGES AT BOTTOM 2 DOTTED LINES UPWARDS. METAL IONS ARE HYDRATED ... WITH OXYGEN OF SIX WATER MOLECULES DATIVE BONDED TO THE CENTRAL ATOM. THESE IONS ARE OCTAHEDRAL .E.G. [CR(H20)6]3+ AND [MG(H2O)6]2+.
SUMMARY  WORK OUT THE NUMBER OF LONE AND SIGMA BONDS AROUND CENTRAL ATOMS. GIVES ARRANGEMENT OF ELECTRONS.
REPULSION OF THE BONDS PAIRS AND LONE PAIRS REDUCES THE BOND ANGLE.
POLARITY  IN H2 AND CL2 – THE AVERAGE POSITION OF BONDING ELECTRONS IS HALFWAY BETWEEN THE CENTRES
BUT IN BONDS OF ATOM OF DOFF ELEMENTS
(HF H20)  IN HF THE ELECTRON CLOSER TO F BECAUSE MORE ELECTRONEGATIVE.
ELECTRONEGATIVE IS THE ABILITY OF AN ELEMENT TO ATTRACT A PAIR OF ELECTRONS IN A COVALENT BOND AND WITHDRAWN ELECTRON DENSITY.
IN P TABLE THE ELECTRONEGATIVITY INCREASE ACROSS PERIOD DECREASES DOWN A GROUP. BUT OXYGEN HAS 2ND HIGHEST ELECTRONEGATIVITY.
WHEN 2 COVALENTLY BONDED ELEMENT HAVE DIFF ELECTRONEGATIVITIES ON HAS SLIGHT POS AND NEG, THEY ARE POLAR.
THE BOND ELECTRONS DRAWN TOWARDS THE MORE ELECTRONEGATIVE ELEMENT MAKING IT NEGATIVE.
COVALENT BOND POLAR 100%,
IF HIGH DIFFERENCE IN ELECTRONEGATIVITY THEN IONIC.
SHAPE AND POLARITY BONDS IN CH3CL AND CCL4 ARE POLAR.
THE CH3CL IS POLAR BECAUSE THE C-CL POLARITY IS NO CANCELLED OUT.
BUT CCL4 IS NOT POLAR BECAUSE THE POLARITIES IN EACH C-CL BONDS CANCEL OUT AS SYMMETRICAL.
IS NH3 POLAR NO, HAS 3 POLAR BONDS AND A LONE PAIR DO NOT CANCEL SO IS POLAR.
TRIGONAL PLANAR MOLE SO3, BECL3 ARE NON POLAR COZ POLARITIES DON’T CANCEL.
H20 IS V SHAPED (POLAR) POLARITIES DON’T CANCEL.
CO2 IS LINEAR & THE POLARITIES CANCEL.
TO TEST FOR POLAR CAN USE WATER FROM BURETTE AND BALLOON WHICH HAS BEEN RUBBED ON WOOL – STATIC ELECTRICITY.
WILL THE POLAR MOLECULE BE ATTRACO THE BALOON ? WHY? YES AND BEACAUSE OF STAIC ELECTRICITY
POLARITY OF A MOLECULE MEASURE BY THE DIPOLE MOMENT
FOR A DIATOMIC ELEMENT – E.G HCL IS DEFINED BY THE DIFFERENCE IN CHARGES X THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE H & THE CL. FOR A POLYATOMIC ELEMENT MORE COMPLICATED.
POLARITY SHOWN AS ARROW WITH PLUS AT ONE END
THE ARROW POINTS TO THE NEGATIVE ATOM IN THE BOND.
7 TYPES OF INTERACTION/INTERMOLECULAR ION BETWEEN 2 IONS 250 KLMOL-1.
ATOM –ATOM INTERACTION IN A COVALENT BOND 400.
PERMANENT DIPOLE DIPOLE- IS BTWEEN POLAR MOLECULES 1.5 ,
INSTANTANEOUS INDUCED DIPOLE DIPOLE BETWEEN ALL TYPES OF MOLECULES 1OKJMOL-1. ALKANES
HYDROGEN BONDING BETWEEN HFON.20KJMOL-1.
ION ION BOND IS A ELECTROSTATIC ATTRACTION BETWEEN POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ION,
IN A ION ION BOND THE STRENGTH IS PROPORTION TO THE PRODUCT OF IT CHARGES AND IN INVERSELY PROPORTIONALLY TO THE SUM OF THE IONIC RADII.
ATOMS BONDS ARE BETWEEN ARE COVALENT BONDS
COVALENT BONDS IS AN ATTRACTION OF 2 NUCLEI FOR THE SHARED ELECTRONS IN THE BOND,
SHORT BONDS ARE STRONGER THAN LONG BONDS.
ION ELECTRON BONDS ARE BETWEEN FORCES IN A METAL , SMALL METAL ION BOND MORE STRONGLY THAN LARGE,
MORE DELOCALISED ELECTRONS THE STRONGER THE BOND.
ION WATER MOLECULES WATER IS POLAR HAS POS AND NEG., THE NEG OXYGEN IS ATTRACTED T THE POS METAL ION AND H THE HYDROGEN ION ATTRACTED TO THE NEG METAL IONS.,
ONE OF THE LONE PAIRS OF ELECTRONS IN THE OXYGEN FORMS A DATIVE COVALENT BOND WITH THE EMPTY ORBITAL IN A METAL CATION = HYDRATED ION.
FORCES BETWEEN COVALENTLY BONDED MOLECULES ARE INTERMOLECULAR FORCES – PERMANENT DIPOLE DIPOLE , INSTANTANEOUS INDUCES DIPOLE FORCES, HYDROGEN BONDS.
PERMANENT DIPOLE DIPOLE - MOLECULES WITH PERMANENT DIPOLE CAN ATTRACT NEIGHBOURING MOLECULES.
THE DIPOLE LINE UP SO THE POSITIVE END IS NEXT TO THE NEGATIVE END OF ANOTHER MOLECULE. = INTERMOLECULAR FORCES.
POSITIVE END IS NEXT TO THE NEGATIVE END OF ANOTHER MOLECULE CALLED INTERMOLECULAR FORCES
INSTANTANEOUS INDUCED DIPOLE DIPOLE FORCES DISPERSION /LONDON FORCES. THE ELECTRONS CONSTANTLY MOVING AROUND ITS CAUSES TEMPORARY DIPOLE.
Created by: ufuoma