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SHAPES AND MOLE2

QuestionAnswer
2 BOND PAIRS AND ONE LONE PAIR BENT
SULFUR DIOXIDE O=S=O HAS 4 OF THE 6 VALENCE ELECTRONS USED IN BONDING SO ONE LONE PAIR THE 3 ELECTRON PAIRS ARE IN A TRIGONAL PLANER POSITION , BUT IS DESCRIBED BY POSITION OF ATOMS AROUND SULFUR = BENT/V SHAPED.
SPECIES WITH 4 ELECTRONS TETRAHEDRAL HAS 109.5 BOND ANGLES. E.G. METHANE CH4. FORMS 4 SIGMA BONDS ALL VALENCE ELECTRON IS USED IN BONDING = NO LONE PAIRS.
TO DRAW TETRAHEDRAL THE DOTTED ONE TO THE LEFT AND TRIANGLE IN THE MIDDLE.
HOW ARE ALKANES BONDED TETRAHEDRALLY BONDED SKELETAL FORMULA SHOWS ...BOND ANGLES BETTER.
SILICON IN GROUP 4- SO SIH4 SICL4 TETRAHEDRAL
NH4+ AMMONIUM IS WHY - 3 OF FIVE VALENCE ELECTRON IN NITROGEN USED TO FORM SINGLE COVALENT BONDS WITH HYDROGEN 2 USED TO FORM A DATIVE BOND WITH H+ ION. BOND PAIRS REPEL.
AL2CL6 IS WHY 4 BOND PAIRS OF ELECTRON SURROUND EACH AL. SO 4 CHLORINE ATOMS ARRANGED IN A TETRAHEDRON AROUND THE ALUMINIUM. 109.5DEGREES.
SULFATE HAS – 4 SIGMA AND 2 PI ALL SIX VALENCE ELECTRONS USED IN BONDING. – SIGMA BONDS REPEL EQUALLY =TETRAHEDRAL. TRIANGLE COMING OUT DOTTED COMING IN.
3 BOND PAIRS AND ONE LONE PAIR 4 PAIRS OF ELECTRONS ARE ARRANGED TETRAHEDRALLY AROUND CENTRAL ATOMS,- BUT IT IS PYRAMIDAL – LONE PAIR IS AT THE TOP.
AMMONIA MOLECULES SHAPE ARE WHY PYRAMIDAL 5 VALENCE ELECTRONS IN GROUP 5 THE ELECTRONS ARE ARRANGED TETRA BUT ARE PYRAMIDAL.
WHEN DRAWING AMONIA DRAW ONE ORDINARY LINE – ONE WEDGE, ONE DASHED. PYRAMIDAL
THE REPULSION BETWEEN LONE PAIR AND BOND PAIRS IS GREATER THAN REPULSION BETWEEN JUST BOND PAIRS.
SO PYRAMIDAL BOND ANGLE ... HAS 107 DEGREE ANGLE.
SULPHITE ION SHAPE SO32 IS... WHY PYRAMIDAL – FORMS 2 SINGLE BONDS WITH 2 OXYGEN ATOMS , ONE DOUBLE BONDS WITH OXYGEN. SO ONLY 4 OF 6 VALENCE ELECTRONS USED. SO ONE LONE PAIR.
2 BOND PAIRS AND 2 LONE PAIR IS ARRANGED TETRAHEDRALLY, ONLY 2 ATOMS BONDED TO THE CENTRAL ATOM – IT IS BENT V SHAPED.
EXMPLE OF BENT IS WATER 2 OXYGEN VALENCE ELECTRONS USED IN BONDING, SO 2 LONE PAIRS.
FOR BENT 2 BOND 2 LONE THE BOND ANGLE IS 104.5 ANGLE. THE 4 ELECTRON PAIRS REPEL AT A MINIMUM REPULSION SO IT BENT.
IN ETHANOL THE OXYGEN ATOM HAS 2 SIGMA AND 2 LONE PAIRS SO THE C-O-H IS 104.5. THE OTHER BONDS AND NORMAL TETRAHEDRAL.
5 ELECTRONS PAIRS HAS 5 BOND PAIRS NO LONE PAIRS, TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL.
5 ELECTRONS PAIRS HAS POSITION OF MAXIMUM SEPARATION FORMS ONE PLANAR MOLECULE CALLED TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL.
EXAMPLE OF TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL PHOSPHORUS PENTACHLORIDE,PCL5 HAS 5 BONDING ANGLE 90 AND 120 DEGREES.
DRAWING TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL THE TRIANGLE AND THE DOTTED LINES IS ON THE LEFT SIDE. THE RIGHT HAS 90 DEGREE ANGLE.
LONE PAIR LONE PAIR REPULSION GREATEST IN TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL
6 ELECTRON PAIR’S SIX ELECTRON PAIRS REPEL TAKE UP OCTAHEDRAL ARRANGEMENT. WITH 90 DEGREES BOND ANGLES
EXAMPLE OF 6 ELECTRON PAIRS SF6. ALL VALENCE ELECTRONS USED.
Created by: ufuoma