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SHAPES AND MOLE1

QuestionAnswer
OXYGEN IS LIFE-SAVING GAS ,OZONE AND MAGNETIC LIQUID.
CFCS THINNEN OZONE AND ALLOW HARMFUL UV TO ENTER.
MAGNETIC FUEL OXYGEN O2 BOILS AT 183 DEGREES CELSIUS – PRODUCES BLUE MAGNETIC LIQUID, CAN BE HELD BETWEEN POLES OF STRO0NG MAGNET.DOESN’T HAVE A NORMAL DOUBLE BOND – HAS 2 UNPAIRED ELECTRON IN THE ANTI-BONDING PIE ORBITAL’S.
THEY GIVE RISE TO THE COLOUR AND MAGNETIC.
SHAPES OF MOLECULES –IONS AND POLARITY, INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: WHEN LIGHT STRIKES ROD CELL IN RETINA CAUSES MOLECULE 11 CIS RETINAL TO CHANGE SHAPE TRIGGERS SIGNAL ALONG OPTIC NERVE ALONG BRAIN.
ANIMAL FATS AND VEGETABLE OILS ARE ESTERS OF FATTY ACIDS , SOME OF WHICH ARE UNSATURATED. THE CIS ISOMERS OF THESES ... FA ARE LESS HARMFUL TAN TRANS.
ELECTRON PAIRS BODING AND LONE PAIRS REPEL EACH OTHER TO POSITION OF MINIMUM REPULSION / MAXIMUM SEPARATION.
METHOD OF PREDICTING SHAPE COUNT NUMBER OF BOND PAIR AROUND CENTRAL ATOM. EQUAL TO NUMBER OF BONDS FORMED BY CENTRAL ATOM. COUNT NUMBER OF LONE PAIRS ON CENTRAL ATOMS.
THE NUMBER OF NON BONDING ELECTRONS FOUND BY SUBTRACTING THE NUMBER OF ELECTRON USED IN BONDING – THE NUMBER OF ELECTRONS IN THE ELEMENT.
THE NUMBER OF LONE PAIR = IS HALF THIS NUMBER.
NUMBER OF LONE PAIRS = GROUP[ NUMBER – NUMBER OF ELECTRONS IN BONDING /2.
STEP 3: ADD THESE NUMBERS TOGETHER - TOTAL NO OF ELECTRON PAIRS. DETERMINES ARRANGEMENT OF ELECTRON PAIRS. 1 – SEE WHAT GROUP IT IS IN, SEE HOW MANY BONDS MADE, - TAKE AWAY GROUP NUMBER FORM BONDING PAIRS/2=LONE PAIRS.
NUMBER OF SIGMA PIE AND LONE PAIRS IN SULPHATE ION =- 4 SIGMA , 2 PI AND 0 LONE PAIRS.
HOW MANY LONE PAIRS IN SULPHUR DIOXIDE = HAS 2 SIGMA AND 2 PIE SO 4 BONDING ELECTRONS 6-4 = 2 ONE LONE PAIR.
2 ELECTRONS PAIRS: - MAKE REPULSION AND MAKE LINEAR ARRANGEMENT.
EXAMPLE OF 2 ELECTRON PAIR LINEAR BECL2 IS COVALENT
CL-BE-CL HAS HAS 2 BOND PAIRS OF ELECTRONS AROUND CENTRAL ATOM BE. IN GROUP 2 NUMBER OF LONE PAIRS ARE 2-2/2 =0 REPEL EACH OTHER TO A MAXIMUM SEPARATION. HAS BOND 180DEGREES. BE DOESN’T HAVE AN OCTET OF ELECTRONS.
CO2 IS ALSO LINEAR.
BOND ANGLE FOR LINEAR = 180
3 ELECTRON PAIRS TRIANGLE PLANAR – (TRIGONAL PLANAR).
EXAMPLE OF TRIGONAL PLANAR BORON TRICHLORIDE -
BCL3 IS COVALENT. IN GROUP 3 AND 3 VALENCE ELECTRONS FORM 3 BONDS.NO LONE PAIR SO THE POSITION OF MINIMUM REPULSION OF ELECTRON PAIRS IS TRIGONAL PLANAR. 120DEGREES.
BOND ANGLE FOR TRIGONAL PLANAR IS 120DEGREES.
SULFUR TRIOXIDE HAS 3 SIGMA AND 3 PI. USE ALL THE 6 VALENCE ELECTRONS – NO LONE PAIRS. TAKE UP TRIGONAL PLANAR.
LONE PAIRS IN CARBON NO LONE PAIRS 4-4 MAKES 0. IT FORMS 3 SIGMA AND ONE PI TRIGONAL PLANAR COZ ELECTRON PAIRS REPEL TO MAX SEPARATION.
ALKENES ARE PLANER AROUND THE C=C
EACH CARBON ATOM FORMS 3 SIGMA BONDS AND ONE PI., THE 3 SIGMA PAIRS REPEL EACH OTHER TO A MAX SEPARATION, THUS THEY ALL LIE IN SAME PLAIN. ETHANE IS PLANAR.
CIS BUT-2-ENE IS PLANAR AROUND THE C=C,
Created by: ufuoma
 

 



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