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1 way to prepare chloroalkane Add phosphurus pentachloride to the ALCOHOL. POCl3 + HCl+ halogenalkane
2nd method to prepare chloroalkanes. Way less efficiently coz some DEHYDRATION of alcohol to propene occurs. Add conc sulfuric acid to mixture of propan-ol- and KCl. H2S04 protonates alcohol & HCl from KCl.
1 way of preparing bromoalkanes? 50% of aulphuric Acid. slowly added with cooling to the alcohol. MIXTURE added to solid KBr & HEATED.
Bromoalkane BP(59degrees) more volatile than alcohol BP 82. So DISTILLS off CONDENSED ,COLLECTED.
1 way to prepare iodoalkanes? can't use 50% of sulphuric acid - will oxidise HI. Alcohol warmed with mixture DAMP RED PHOSPORUS and IODINE. IODINE react with PHOSPHORUS - FORM PHOSPHURUS TRIIODIDE. = REACTS WITH ALCOHOL to form IODOALKANE.
Concentrated sulphurix acid would? oxidise HALOGENOALKANE.
What is substitution? reaction when atom or group replaced by other atom of group.
Examples of nucleophiles for nucleophillic substitution? -OH , -CN , -NH2
in nucleophilic substitution? bond made to CARBON using lone pair of electrons and halide Ion RELEASED.
what is a necleophile? A species with lone pair of elctrons that is used to form covalent bond with pos atom in another molecule.
Reaction with aqueous alkali? reagent :sodium or K hydroxide. Conditions: heat under reflux in aqueow solution. Product : propan-1-ol reaction type:-nucleophilic substitution(hydrolysis)
How is nucleophilic substitution sometimes carried out with OH ? why? with halogenalkane dissolved in alcohol. alkali dissolved in water . organic compound not water soluable - little contact between it and OH ions.
Created by: ufuoma