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where are primary alcohols attached ? to carbon at end. and has CH2 OH group.
where are teritiary abd secondary alcohols? secondary attached to carbon attqchee to 2 other carbons. contain CH(OH) group. tertiary attached to carbon attached to 3 other carbons. no hydrogen atoms
why are alcohols liquid at room temp? Hydrogen bonding between alcohol mole. Oxygen hydrogen bond very polar due to difference in electronegativity.
why are the oxygen and hydrogen bond very polar? difference in electronegativities.
when does a primary alcohol produce a carboxylic acid? when heated under reflux WITH oxsidising mixture. ( CH3CH2OH + 2[O]--> CH3COOH + H20 distilation tube.water in water out , electric heater. flask condenser
For distillation and reflux? the glass is open at top for reflux and open at receivibg end for distillation.
what is formed in reaction with metallic sodium? hydrogen gass and sodium ethoxide. (anion neg sodium pos) excess ethanol evaporated and sodium ethoxide seen as white solid.
what happ if water added to sodium ethoxide ( white solid)? ethoxide ion acts as base removes proton from water forming alkaline soultion of sodium hydroxide.
what happ in halogenation? the OH group removed. replaced with halogen.
what hap when phosphorus pentachloride added to dry alcohol? clouds of hydrogen choride fumes . mixed with chloroalkane. phosphurus oxychloride remains in vessel.
what hap when alcohol heated under reflux with KBr and 50% sulf acid? HBr produced. reacts with alcohol form bromoalkane,+water. acid used 50% conc PREVENT HBR PRODUUCED BEING OXIDISED BY ACID TO BROMINE.
Warming mixture of damp RED PHOSPHURUS and I makes? phosphorus triiodide. then reacts with alcohol to form iodoalkane and phosphorus(III) ACID . MOSITURE TO BRING iodine and P in CONTACT . both SOLID.
IODINATION? I2 and moist phosphurus warm iodoethane substitution.
BROMINATION Kbr - reagent conditions- heat ubder reflux. product - bromoethane reaction- substitution.
Chlorination Reagent- PCl5 conditions: room temp product: chloroethane reaction: substitution
name procedure for test for alcohols? Add PCl5 to dry substance under test. ALL ALCOHOL produce steamy fumes of HCL. Same result for carboxylic acid - test for OH.
What does a positive result for test for alcohols mean? that a OH group is present.
what hap when glass rod dipped in concentrated ammonia held in fumes? steamy fumes of HCl produce white smoke ammonium Cl.
what PH do alcohols have? neutral.7
Do tertiary alcohol change the colour of heated solution of Kdichromate and sulphuric acid? No
what colour do primary secondary and tertiray alcohols change Kdichromate and sulfuricA? primary and secondary - from organge to green. tertiary stay organe.
what hap when S.alcohol (CH3CH(OH)) warmed with mixture of iodine and NaOH solution? pale yellow precipitae formed. of triiodomethane, CHI3.
What is a halogenoalkane? a compound which one or more hydorgen atoms in an alkane replaced by halogen atoms & has onpy single bonds.
What is halogeoalkanes formula? CnH(2n+1)X X is halogen atom. named from parent alkanes.
Halogens being electronegative cause? carbon halogen bond in halogenalkanes polarised . carbon atom pos halogen neg.
what are C2H6Cl C2H6Br and ClCH4 standard states? All GASES at room temp . ICH4 and higher members of series- Liquid
why do halogenoalkanes have higher BP than alkanes? More elctrons so stronger instantaneous induced dipole - induced dipole forces BETWEEN MOLECULES. ALSO POLAR. permanent dipole dipole forces BETWEEN MOL. stretghten intermolecular forces. increase
Created by: ufuoma