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CHAP 7

QuestionAnswer
HALOGEN REACT WITH METALS ... TO FORM SALTS. ASTATINE IS A RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS OF HALF LIFE 8.3 HOURS.
AT ROOM TEMP AND PRESSURE CL- AND F- GASES LIQUID? ... ARE GASES.
AT ROOM TEMP WHAT IS BROMINE STANDARD STATE A ... VOLATILE LIQUID,
IODINE STANDARD STATE IS... A SOLID THAT SUBLIMES ON HEATING.
COLOUR OF IODINE IS .... DARK GREY FORMS A VIOLET VAPOUR.
COLOUR OF BROMINE IS ... A BROWN LIQUID.
COLOUR OF CHLORINE IS ... A GREENISH GAS.
COLOUR OF FLUORINE IS ... A PALE YELLOW GAS.
1ST I.E. OF HALOGEN ... DECREASES DOWN THE GROUP. NUCLEAR CHARGE INCREASES. EFFECTIVE NUCLEAR CHARGE REMAINS SAME
THE ATOMIC RADIUS OF GR 7 .. INCREASES AS NEW SHELLS OUTERMOST ELECTIONS LESS STRONGLY HELD. SO FROM FLUORINE TO 1ST I.E. DECREASES.
ELEMENT GAINS AN ELECTRON... ENERGY IS RELEASED
ELECTRON AFFINITY OF GRR7 ... DECREASES DOWN THE GROUP
WHY ELECTRON AFFINITY OF GRR7 DECREASE DOWN THE GROUP... COZ ELECTRONS NOT AS CLOSE TO NUCLEUS IN LARGE ATOMS THAN IN SMALLER.
WHEN A LARGE ATOM GAINS AN ELECTRON ... LESS ENERGY IS RELEASED THAN A SMALLER.
WHY CHLORINE RELEASE LESS ENERGY ANOMALOUS WHEN GAIN ELECTRONS ... SO SMALL REPULSION BETWEEN THE 7 OTHER ELECTRONS AND THE 1 ELECTRON REDUCES THE ENERGY DUE TO THE ATTRACTION TO THE POSITIVE NUCLEUS OF THE 1 ELECTRON
IN CL TAKES LESS ENRGY TO REMOVE ELECTRON COZ... SO SMALL AND OTHER ELCTRONS REPEL ONE ELECTRON.
CHLORINE AND BR OMINE ARE SOLUBLE /INSOLUABLE?.. SOLUABLE IN WATER
WHY ARE CHLORINE AND BROMINE SOLUABLE IN WATER? ... THEY REACT REVERSIBLE WITH WATER & FORM A MIXTURE OF ACIDS : CL2 + H2OàHCL + HOCL.
AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS CHLORINE AND BROMINE CALLED ... BR AND CL WATER.
COLOUR OF BR WATER & CL WATER IS ... BROWN RED CHLORINE WATER IS PALE GREEN.
IODINE SOLUBLE OR INSOLUABLE IN H2O? SLIGHTLY SOLUBLE IN H20
COLOUR OF IODINE FORMS... PALE BROWN UNLESS KI – WHICH CAUSES DEEP BROWN RED DUE TO I3- ION. I2(AQ) + I-(AQ) àI3-(AQ).
WHY IS KI DEEP BROWN RED ... DUE TO I3- ION. I2(AQ) + I-(AQ) àI3-(AQ).
ALL HALOGENS MORE SOLUBLE IN ... INERT ORGANIC SOLVENTS SUCH AS TETRACHLORIDE OR HEXANE THAN WATER.
2 EXAMPLES OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS THAT HALOGENS MORE SOLUBLE IN... TETRACHLORIDE OR HEXANE
IF HEXANE ADDED TO AQUEOUS SOLUTION WITH HALOGEN ... SOLUTION OF IODINE IN HEXANE IS VIOLET. SOLUTION OF IODINE IN HEXANE IS VIOLET.
BONDING IN COMPOUNDS OF HALOGENS IS .. IONIC BONDING
HALOGENS 1- CHARGE COZ... HIGH ELECTRONEGATIVITY VALUES & WHEN HALOGEN ATOM ACCEPTS AN ELECTRON THE ELECTRON CONFIGURATION COMPLETE.
GROUP I1 AND 2 METAL HALIDES ARE IONIC OR COVALENT ... IONIC CACL.
GROUP 3 ALF3 IS IONIC COZ... METAL AND NON METAL.
ANHYDROUS ALUMINIUM CHLORIDE IS COVALENT OR IONIC....? COVALENT ALCL3.6H2O EACH ALUMINIUM SURROUNDED BY 6 H20 MOLECULES WITH DATIVE COVALENT BONDS FROM OXYGEN TO THE CENTRAL AL3+ ION. ANHYDROUS ALUMINIUM
CL- SUBLIMES ON HEATING PRODUCING... GAS AL2CL6.
IN THIS DIMER THE 2 ALCL3 UNITS JOINED BY DATIVE BONDS ... EACH FORM A CHLORINE ATOMS. THE OUTER ORBIT CONTAINS AN OCTET OF ELECTRONS.
ALL ATOM IN COVALENT ALCL3 HAS ... 6 ELECTRONS IN OUTER ORBIT ITS OWN 3 PLUS OTHER 3.
A LONE PAIR IN A CL ATOM IN ANOTHER ALCL3 FORMS ... A DATIVE BOND USING AN EMPTY 3P ORBITAL OF AL.
COZ OF DATIVE BOND IN ALCL3 AL HAS ... AL HAS 4 PAIRS OF ELECTRONS IN OUTER ORBIT. AND THE 4 CL ARE ARRANGED TETRAHEDRAL
HOW IS ALCL3 ARRANGED ... TETRAHEDARLLY.
WHEN 2 ALCL3 ATOMS JOIN ARE THERE BONDS BETWEEN THEM ... NO BONDS BETWEEN THE 2 AL ATOMS (DON’T DRAW A BOND).
BONDING WITH D BLOCK METALSà CL BR I IN WHAT BLOCK... D BLOCK METALS
D BLOCK METALS ARE ... ARE COVALENT WHEN ANHYDROUS & IONIC WHEN HYDRATED. FECL3 IS COVALENT AND SOLUBLE IN ORGANIC SOLVENTS.
HYDRATED ION ARE BONDED WITH ... 6 MOLS OF WATER BONDED DATIVE COVALENT BONDS FROM OXYGEN IN WATER TO EMPTY 3D-4SP ORBITAL'S OF THE IRON 3+ ION. THE SHAPE IS OCTAHEDRAL & THE CORNERS LABELLED OH2.
COVALENT BONDING:à HALOGENS FORM POLAR ... POLAR COVALENT BONDS WITH ALMOST ALL NON METALS.
FLUORINE IS THE MOST... ELECTRONEGATIVE. IN THE -1 OXIDATION STATE
WHEN DOES FLOURINE HAVE TO BE POSISTIVE ... WHEN BONDED TO F- OR O2-.
CHLORINE HAS 5 EMPTY 3D ORBITAL'S, SO ONE OF ... OF 3P ELECTRONS CAN BE PROMOTED
WHY CAN A CHLORINE 3P ELECTRON BE PROMOTED ... COZ CHLORINE HAS EMPTY 3P ORBITAL.
HOW MANT COVALENT BONDS CAN CHLORINE FORM... MORE THAN 1.
OXIDISING POWER OF HALOGENS IN OR DE... DECREASE DOWN THE GROUP.
METALS REACT WITH HALOGEN TO FORM ... HALIDES -1 OXIDATION STATE . E.G. 2FE +3CL2 à2FECL3
WHICH IS THE LESS POWERFUL OXIDISING AGENT IN GR7 ... IODINE FE + I2 àFEI2
IN A LIMITED SUPPLY OF O2 . 2P+ 3CL2 à 2PCL3. ... PHOSPHORUS TRICL- CAN REACT WITH CL- AND FORM PENTA CL-. IN EXCESS CL- PHOSPHORUS PENTACHLORIDE IS FORMED. 2P + 5CL2 à 2PI5.
IODINE REACT WITH THE RED ALLOTROPE OF PHOSPHORUS TO FORM ... PHOSPHORUS TRIIODIDE. 2P + 3I2 à 2PI3.
IF MIXTURE OF PI3 IS DAMP THEN ... CAN REACT WITH WATER TO FORM HYDROGEN IODIDE GAS. PI3 + 3H20 à 3HI+H3PO3 (THIS HOW GASEOUS HYDROGEN IODIDE IS PREPARED.)
HOW IS GASEOUS HYDROGEN IODIDE PREPARED ... MIXTURE OF PI3 IS DAMP THEN ...
CAN REACT WITH WATER TO FORM HYDROGEN IODIDE GAS. PI3 + 3H20 à 3HI+H3PO3
A HALOGEN WILL DISPLACE A LESS REACTIVE HALOGEN. A HALOGEN WILL DISPLACE A LESS REACTIVE HALOGEN.
WHEN CL- BUBBLED IN KBR ... CL- OXIDISES THE BROMIDE IONS. BROWN BROMINE IS FORMED. CL2 + 2BR-àBR2 + 2CL- . THE CL- MOLECULE GAIN 2 ELECTRONS FORM EACH BROMIDE ION : 2BR-(AQ) à BR2(AQ) + 2E-. CL2(G) + 2E- à 2CL-(AQ).
CL DISPLACES ... IODINE FROM IODIDES
WHEN CHLORINE DISPLACE IDODINE WHAT DOES IT FORM .. A DARK GREY PRECIPITATE OF IODINE CL2 + 2I- à I2 + 2CL-.
BROMINE ALSO DISPLACES ... IODINE FROM IODIDES BR2(AQ) + 2I-(AQ) à I2(S) +2BR-(AQ).
THE DISPLACEMENT OF BR BY CL- IS USED IN ... EXTRACTION OF BROMINE SEAWATER , HAS SMALL AMOUNT OF BR IONS.
IODINE IS THE LEAST REACTIVE SOO... WILL ALWAYS BE DISPLACED
CL GAS IS BUBBLED INTO SEAWATER & BR PRODUCED IS ... REMOVED BY BLOWING AIR THROUGH THE SOLUTION.
CL GAS IS BUBBLED INTO SEAWATER & BR PRODUCED IS ... REMOVED BY BLOWING AIR THROUGH THE SOLUTION.
(SEAWATER )ON COOLING THE BROMINE VAPOUR ... CONDENSES IS COLLECTED
IODINE IS ONLY VIOLET WHEN .. A GAS OR DISSOLVED IN HEXANE OR TETRACHLORIDE
HOW DOES CL REACT WITH WATER ... REVERSIBLE TO FORM HCL ACIDIC AND WEAK ACID CHLORIC (I) ACID.
WHAT DOES CL FORM WHEN REACTED IWTH WTAER ... HCL ACIDIC AND WEAK ACID CHLORIC (I) ACID THE SOLUTION ACIDIC COZ THE H+.
H+ IONS MAKE SOLUTIONS ... ACIDIC
REACTION OF CL WITH WATER IS WHAT TYPE OF REACTION...WHY? THIS IS A DISPROPORTIONATION REACTION. CL2- STARTS IN 0 OXIDATION STATE & IS REDUCED TO -1 IN CL- ION AND OXIDISED TO +1 IN CHLORIC (I) ACID HOCL. CL- IS SIMULTANEOUSLY OXIDISED AND REDUCED.
HOW DOES FLUORINE REACT WITH WTAER... IRREVERSIBLY WITH WATER FORM HYDROGEN FLUORIDE AND OXYGEN.
WHAT IS FORMED WHEN F-(G) + H20(L) ... HF AND O2.
HOW DOES BROMINE REACTS WITH WATER (REVERSIBLEY WITH WATER ) BUT POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM MORE ON LEFT. BR2(AQ) + H2O(L) REVERSIBLE ARROWS H+(AQ) + BR-(AQ) +HOBR (AQ)
HOW DOES IODINE REACT WITH WATER ...
ALKALI AT ROOM TEMP CL- BR-I-ALL REACT IODINE DOESN’T REACT WITH WATER. WITH COLD AQUEOUS NAOH ... BY DISPROPORTIONATION REACTIONS FORM MIXTURE OF HALIDE AND HALATE (I) SALTS
DISPROPORTION REACTION WITH CL AND COLD AQUEOUS NAOH ... CL2(0) + 2NAOH àNACL(-1) + NAOCL(+1) +H2O. THE CL IN ZERO STATE REDUCED TO -1 IN NACL AND OXIDISED TO +1 IN NAOCL (SODIUM CHLORATE (I)). IONIC EQUATION IS: CL2(AQ) + 2OH- (AQ) à CL-(AQ) +OCL (AQ) +H20(L).
F- REACTS IRREVERSIBLE WITH WATER TO FORM HYDROGEN FLUORIDE AND OXYGEN. CL IS TOTALLY IONISED INTO H+ AND CL- IONS. WHEN BOLIING ARE HF BOND BROKEN ...WHY ? NO HF HAS INTERMOLECULAR BONDS, COVALENT BONDS
H- HALOGEN COVALENT BOND IS BROKEN BY... WATER. BOND REQUIRES LOADS OF ENERGY ENDOTHERMIC.,
HOW IS THE ENRGY REGAINED FROM BREAK H-X BOND?... ENERGY REGAINED BY FORMATION OF DATIVE BOND WITH OXYGEN IN WATER AND H+ TO FORM HCO3+ ION.
WHY IS THE HYDROGEN HALIDE BOND THE STRONGEST ACID ... BECAUSE THE H-I IS THE WEAKEST, SO REMOVAL OF HYDROGEN ION MORE ENERGETICALLY FAVOURABLE. HI(G)+H20(L) à H3O+(AQ) +I-(AQ). HF(G)+H20(L) REVERSIBLE ARROWS H30+(AQ) +F-(AQ).
WHAY COLOUR ARE HYDROGEN HALIDES AT ROOM TEMP... COLOURLESS
WHEN GASEOUS H-CL REACTS WITH GASEOUS AMMONIA WHAT IS FORMED .. WHITE FUMES OF SOLID AMMONIUM CHLORIDE HCL(AQ) +NH3(G) à NH4CL(S). AMMONIA IS A BASE.
HOW DOES AMMONIA PLAY PART IN TESTS .. USED TO TEST FOR HI, HCL, AND HBR BUT DOESN'T DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THEM
WHICH HYDROGEN HALIDES IS THE STRONGEST REDUCING AGENT ... H-I IS STRONGEST REDUCING AGENT. IN REACTION THE H-X ARE OXIDISED TO HALOGENS. 2HX à X2 +2H+2E-.
GASEOUS H-I REDUCES CONCENTRATED SULPHURIC ACID TO ... SULPHUR AND H2S.
GASEOUS H-I REDUCES CONCENTRATED SULPHURIC ACID WHAT’S GIVEN OFF ... CLOUDS OF VIOLET IODIDE VAPOUR GIVEN OFF. SULPHUR IN SULPHURIC ACID REDUCED FROM OXIDATIVE STATE OF +6 IN SULPHURIC ACID TO -2 IN H-SULFIDE AND O IN ELEMENTAL SULFUR.
SULPHUR IN SULPHURIC ACID REDUCED FROM ... OXIDATIVE STATE OF +6 IN SULPHURIC ACID TO -2 IN H-SULFIDE AND O IN ELEMENTAL SULFUR.
WHY DOES H-BR ONLY PARTIALLY REDUCE CONCENTRATED SUFURIC ACID TO SUFUR DIOCZXIDE S02.? WEAKER REDUCING AGENT IT IS ITSELF OXIDISED TO BROWN BROMINE VAPOUR. 2HBR + H2SO4 REVERSIBLE SIGN BR2 + 2H2O+S02 THE SULPHUR IN SUFURIC ACID IS REDUCED FROM OXIDATION STATE OF +6 IN SULPHURIC ACID TO +4 IN SULPHUR DIOXIDE.
WHY CAN’T H-F AND H-CL REDUCE CONCENTRATED SUFURIC ACID... NOT STRONG ENOUGH REDUCING AGENTS.
GROUP 1 METALS FORM IONIC SALTS OF MX E.G. ... KI ,NACL.
GROUP 2 METALS FORM IONIC SALTS OF .. MX2 E.G. CABR2.
D BLOCK METALS FORM SALT OF FORMULA .. MX2/MX3.
WHEN SALTS HYDRATED THEY ARE ... IONIC E.G. CU(II)CL, CUCL2 AND FECL3.
ARE HALIDE SOLUABLE IN WTAER... ALL HALIDES SOLUBLE IN WATER
WHICH HALIDES ARE NOT SOLUABLE IN WATER ... SILVER HALIDES LEAD CL-(AQ) + AG+(AQ) à AGCL(S) (WHITE). BR-(AQ) +AG+(AQ) à AGBR(S)(CREAM).
SILVER HALIDES SILVER-CL COULR IS ... WHITE SOLID PRECIPITATE
SILVER –BR COLOUR IS .... CREAM PRECIPITATE
STRENGTH OF HALIDE AS REDUCING AGENTS INCREASE FROM ... CL- TO I-. 2X- +2E-àX2.
WHY ARE CHLORINE IONS VERY DIFFICULT TO OXIDES ... COZ WEAK REDUCING AGENTS HARDER TO LOSE ELECTRON. OXIDISED BY KMAGANATE OR CLO- IONS IN DILUTE SULPHURIC ACID.
IS IT EASY TO OXIDISED A BR ION ...? YES , BROMIDE IONS MORE EASILY OXIXDISED BY, BY CL-, KDICHROMATE (VI) & KMAGANATE IN DILUTE SULPHURIC ACID.
IODIDE IONS STRONG REDUCING AGENTS SO ARE... OXIDISED BY MANY. E.G. FE2+ REDUCED TO FE3+ IODINE IONS IN SOLUTION. 2 HALF EQUATIONS ARE: 2I-(AQ) àI2(S) +2E- , FE3+(AQ) + E- à FE2+(AQ).
BECAUSE KBROMIDE IS COLOURLESS THE EQUATIONS ARE ... KBR +H2SO4 à HBR +KHSO4. 2HBR +H2SO4 àBR2 + SO2 +2H2O
WHEN IODIDE PRODICED WHAT COLOUR FUMES... STEAMY FUMES OF IODIDE BUT MOSTLY VIOLET CLOUD OF IODINE VAPOUR & YELLOW SULPHUR. SMELL OF ROTTEN EGGS COZ HYDROGEN SULFIDE ALSO PRODUCED.
WHAT MAKES SMELL OF ROTTEN EGGS .. HYDROGEN SULFIDE.
TEST FOR HALIDES ... DILUTE NITRIC ACID IS ADDED TO SOLUTION OF UNKNOWN HALIDE UNTIL JUST ACIDIC. AG NITRATE SOLUTION ADDED. CL-,BR-,I- ALL PRODUCE A PRECIPITATE OF SILVER HALIDE.
WHAT COLOUR PRECIPITATE DOES HALIDES GIVE IN TEST ... CHLORIDE (INCLUDING HCL) GIVE A WHITE PRECIPITATE SOLUBLE IN DILUTE AQUEOUS AMMONIA.
BROMIDES GIVE CREAM PRECIPITATE WHICH IS INSOLUBLE IN DILUTE AQUEOUS AMMONIA BUT SOLUBLE IN CONCENTRATED AQUEOUS AMMONIA. IODIDES GIVE PALE YELLOW PRECIPITATE – INSOLUBLE IN BOTH DILUTE AND CONCENTRATED AQUEOUS AMMONIA
WHY IS DILUTE NITRIC ACID ADDED TO SILVER HALIDE PRECIPITATE... TO PREVENT THE PRECIPITATION OF OTHER IONS (CARBONATE) BY SILVER IONS.
Created by: ufuoma