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Chem Vocab Ch 5-8

Vocab Ch. 5-8

significant figurea the certain digits and the first uncertain digit of a measurement
conversion factor a ratio used to convert from one unit to another
atomic mass unit (amu) a small unit of mass equal to 1.66 x 10^-24 grams
average atomic mass the weighted average of the masses of all the isotopes of an element
mole the number equal to the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure 12 C: Avogadro's number. One mole represents 6.022 x 10^23 units
avogadro's number the numbers of atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure 12 C, equal to 6.022 x 10^23
molar mass the mass in grams of 1 mole of the substance
empirical formula the formula of a compound expressing the smallest whole-number ration of atoms in a compound
molecular formula the actual formula of a compound giving the types of atoms and numbers of each type of atom
chemical reaction one or more substances are changed into one or more new substances by the reorginization of component atoms
chemical equation a representaion of a chemical reaction using the formulas of the starting substances that react and the the new substances that are formed
reactant the starting substance of a chemical reaction, shown to the left of the reaction arrow
product the new substance formed by a chemical reaction, shown to the right of the reaction arrow
coeffiecient the number written in front of the chemical formulas in a balance chemical equation- coefficients indicate the relative numbers of reactants and products in the reaction
precipitation the formation of a solid in a chemical reaction
precipitate the solid that forms in a precipitation reaction
precipitation reaction a reaction in which a solid forms and separates from the solution
strong electrolyte a substance that dissolves in water by dissociation completely into ions
soluble solid a solid that readily dissolves in water
insoluble solid a solid that dissolves to such a small degree that it is not detectable to the naked eye
strong acid an acid that completely dissociates to produce H+ ions in solution
strong base a basee that completely dissociates to produce OH- ions in solution
oxidation reduction reaction a chemical reaction involving the transfer of electrons
double displacement reaction AB + CD ---> AD + CB
acid base reaction involves H+ ion that ends up in the product water
single replacement reaction A + BC ---> B+AC
combustion reaction a chemical reaction involving oxygen as one of the reactants that produces enough heat so that a flame results
synthesis (combination) reaction a chemical reaction in which a compound is formed from simpler materials
decomposition reaction a chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into simpler compounds, or into the component elements
Created by: briannaaa_vik