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Chem Vocap Ch 1-4

Chemistry 1-4

chemistry the sciene of materials and the changes that these materials undergo
scientific method the process that lies at the center of science inquiry
theory is a set of tested hypotheses that gives an overall explanation of some part of nature
natural law statemednt that summarizes generally observed behavior
measurement a quantitative observation
matter the "stuff" of which the universe is composed of
atom fundamental unit of which elements are made
compounds substances made by bonding atoms together in specific ways
molecule a collection of atoms bonded together that behave as a unit
elements substances containing only one type of atom
solid substance with a fixed shape and volume
liquid substance with a definite volume that takes the shape of its container
gas substance with no definite shape or volume
physical property characterisitic of a substance that can change without the substance s becoming a different substance
chemical property characteristic that describes the ability of a substance to change to a different substance
physical change change that does not affect the composition of a substance
chemical change change in which a substance becomes a different substance
mixture a substance with variable composition
alloy a mixture of elements that has metallic properties
pure substance either a pure element of a compound
homogenous mixture a mixture that is the same throughout
solution a homogenous mixture
heterogeneous mixture a mixture containing regions with differing properties
distillation a separation process that depends on the different boiling points of the substances
filtration separation of a solid from a liquid by using filter paper
element symbols a set of abbreviations for the chemical elements
electrons a negatively charged subatomic particle
nuclear atom a modern concept of the atom as having a dense center of positive charge (the nucleus) surrounded by moving electrons
nucleus the relatively small, dense center of positive charge in an atom
proton a positively charged subatomic particle located in the atomic nucleus
neutron a subatomic particle with no charge located in the atomic nucleus
isotopes atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of a given atom
mass number the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of a given atom
group a vertical column of elements on the periodic table
diatomic molecule a milecule composed of two atoms
ion an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge
cation positively charged ion
anion negatively charged ion
ionic compound a compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal to form cations and anions
binary ionic compound a two-element compound consisting of a cation and an anion
polyatomic ions an ion consisting of two or more atoms bound together
oxyanion a polyatomic ion containing at least one oxygen atom and one or more atoms of at least one other element
Created by: briannaaa_vik