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Chapter 32 Physics

What does Electrotatics involve? electric charges, the forces between them, and their behavior in material
What holds atoms together? electricity
What is electrostatics? electricity at rest
What topics of electricity are we studying? electric charges, forces between them, their behavior in materials
What is the fundamental rule at the base of all electrical phenomena? that like charges repel and opposite charges attract
What force is a billion times stronger than gravitational force? Electric force
What does electric forces come from? particles in atoms
What do proton attract? electrons
what do protons repel? protons
what doe electrons attract? protons
what do electrons repel? electrons
What charge are electrons? negative
what charge is protons? positive
what charge is neutrons? neutral
What does every atom have? a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charges electrons
are all electrons identical? yes
What do they all have the same amount of? mass and charge
What does the nucleus contain? protons and neutrons
How much mass does a proton have? 2000 times the mass of an electron but its positive charge is the same amount as an electron's negative charge just opposite
How much mass does a neutron have? has slightly more mass than proton and no charge
Why does an atom have zero net charge? atoms usually have the same number of electrons as protons so the overall atom has zero net charge and it is neutral
What is the fundamental rule again? opposite charges attract and like charges repel
What is an object that has unequal numbers of electrons and protons? electrically charged
What is an ion? a charged atom
If an atom gains electrons it is...? a negative ion
When is there zero net charge in a neutral atom? there are as many negative electrons as positive protons
What happens if it loses electrons? it is a positive ion
Do protons move? NO
In an atom what happens to the electrons closest to the nucleus? tightly bound together
What kind of an attraction between the negative electrons and the positive protons in the nucleus? strong electrical
What electrons are less tightly bound and can move? outer electrons
What does the energy required to move the electrons depend on? the material
What is high electron affinity? some materials hold onto their electrons tighter than other materials
When does the rod turn negatively charged? when electrons are transferred from the fur to the rod
If electrons are neither created nor destroyed then what are they? they are transferred
All charged objects have a charge that is ..? a whole number multiple of the charge of a single electron
Can electrons be divided into fractions? NO
What can a charge not be equal to? 1.5
What does Coulomb's law state? that for charged particles or objects that are small compared with the distance between them, the force between the charges varies directly as the product of the charges and inversely as the square of the distance between them
Who discovered the relationship among electrical force charges and distance -Coulomb's law? French Physicist Charles Coulomb in the eighteenth century
Why for charged objects does the force between the charges varies directly? as the product of the charges and inversely as the square of the distance between them
What is d represent? the distance between the charged particles
what does q1 mean? represents the quantity of charge in one object
What does q2 represent? the quantity of charge of the other particle
what does k represent? the proportionality constant
What is the SI unity of charge? the coulomb abbreviated C.
How much electrons is a charge of 1 C? 6.24 x 10 to the 18 power
what does a coulomb represent? the amount of charge that passes through a common 100-W light bulb in about one second
What is the greatest difference between gravitational and electrical forces? is that gravity only attracts but electrical forces may attract or repel
Compare the two formulas shows these conclusions: both are inverse square laws, 3x distance changes force to 1/9 as much, 1/3 distance changes force to 9x greater
What are they both directly proportional to? a product of a property of the objects
What does gravity only do? only attracts
What does electric force do? attracts and repels
How is gravitational and electrical forces different? electric force is very large compared to gravity force
Why do electrical forces usually balance out? because most objects have almost exactly equal numbers of electrons and protons
between where is there no measurable electrical force? between earth and moon
What is the predominant force between astronomical bodies? weak gravitational force which only attracts
What is not always true about electrical forces? that they balance out for astronomical and everyday objects at the atomic level
When do atoms share electrons? when two or more atoms are close together
When does bonding result? when the attractive force between the electrons of one atom and the positive nucleus of another atom is greater than the repulsive force between the electrons of both atoms
What does bonding lead to? the formation of molecules
When do electrons move easily? in good conductors
when do electrons move poorly? in good insulators
What are conductors? materials which have electrons that are free to roam and so electric charge is carried easily through these materials
What is an example of a good conductor? metals
What are good electric conductors? usually good heat conductors
What are insulators? materials through which electrons do not easily flow
What are good insulators? rubber, glass, air
What do insulators hold? static charge on their outside surfaces
How is a substance classified? as a conductor or an insulator based on how tightly the atoms of the substance hold their electrons
Created by: 16_dnuckolls
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