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Chemistry Midterm1-8

Chemistry Midterm1-8 Sierra Hansen

TermDefinition
Chemistry The science of materials and the changes that these materials undergo.
Scientific Method Systematic process for studying nature that involves observations, hypotheses, and experiments.
Measurment A quantitative observation.
Natural Law Statement that summarizes generally observed behavior.
Atom Fundamental unit of which elements are made.
Molecule A collection of atoms bonded together that behave as a unit.
Elements Substances containing only one type of atom.
Physical Change Chang that does not affect the composition of a substance.
Chemical Change Change in which a substance becomes a different substance.
Mixture A substance with a variable composition.
Alloy A mixture of elements that has metallic properties.
Pure Substance Either pure element or a compound.
Law of constant composition A given compound always contains elements in exactly the same proportion by mass.
Compound A substance made of two or more different elements joined together in a specific way.
Electron A negatively charged subatomic particle.
Nucleus The relatively small, dense center of positive charge in an atom.
Proton A positively charged subatomic particle located in the atomic nucleus.
Neutron A subatomic particle with no charge located in the atomic nucleus.
Isotopes Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus of a given atom.
Mass Number The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of a given atom.
Group A vertical column of elements on the periodic table.
Diatomic molecule A molecule composed of two atoms.
Distillation A separation process that depends on the different boiling points of the substances.
Filtration Separation of a solid from a liquid by using filter paper.
Homogeneous mixture A mixture that is the same throughout.
Solution A homogeneous mixture.
Heterogeneous mixture A mixture containing regions with differing properties.
Solid Substance with a fixed shape and volume.
Liquid Substance with a definite volume that takes the shape of it container.
Gas Substance with no definite shape or volume.
Physical Property Characteristic of a substance that can change without the substance's becoming a different substance.
Chemical Property Characteristic that describes the ability of a substance to change to a different substance.
Ion An atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge.
Cation A positively charged ion.
Anion A negatively charged ion.
Ionic compound A compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal to form cations and anions.
Binary ionic compound A two element compound consisting of a cation and an anion.
Polyatomic ions An ion consisting of two or more atoms bound together.
Oxyanion A polyatomic ion containing at least one oxygen atom and one or more atoms of at least one other element.
Acid A substance that produces hydrogen ions (h+) in solution; a proton donor.
Unit The part of the measurement telling us the scale being used.
Volume The amount of three- dimensional space occupied a substance.
Mass The quantity of matter in an object.
Significant figures The certain digits and the first uncertain digit of a measurement.
Conversion factor An ratio used to convert from one unit to another.
Dimensional Analysis The process of using conversion factors to change from one unit to another.
Density The mass of a substance per given volume of that substance.
Specific gravity The ratio of the density of given liquid to the density of water at 4 C.
Atomic mass unit A small unit of mass equals to 1.66 X 10 -24.
Average atomic mass The weighted average of the masses of all the isotopes of an element.
Mole The number equal to the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure 12C Avogadro's number. One mole represents 6.022 X 10 23 units.
Avogadro's number The number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure 12C, equal to 6.022 X 10 23.
Molar Mass The mass in grams of 1 mole of the substance.
Empirical formula The formula of a compound expressing the smallest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound.
Molecular formula The actual formula of a compound giving the types of atoms and numbers of each type of atom.
Chemical reaction One or more substances are changed into one or more new substances by the reorganization of component atoms.
Chemical equation A representation of a chemical reaction using the formulas of the starting substances that react and the new substances that are formed.
Reactant The starting substance of a chemical reaction, shown to the left of the reaction arrow.
Product The new substance formed by a chemical reaction, shown to the right of the reaction arrow.
Coefficient The number written in front of the chemical formulas in a balanced chemical equation. Coefficients indicate the relative numbers of reactants and products in the reaction.
Precipitation The formation of a solid in a chemical reaction.
Precipitate The solid that forms in a precipitation reaction.
Precipitation reaction A reaction in which a solid forms and separates from the solution.
Strong electrolyte A substance that dissolves in water by dissociating completely into ions.
Soluble solid A solid that readily dissolves in water.
Insoluble solid A solid that dissolves to such a small degree that it is not detectable to the naked eye.
Molecular equation A chemical equation showing the complete forms of all reactants and products.
Complete ionic equation A chemical equation for a reaction in solution representing all strong electrolytes as ions.
Spectator equation A chemical equation for a reaction in solution representing all strong electrolytes as ions.
Net ionic equation A chemical equation for a reaction in solution showing only those components that are directly involved in the reaction. Strong electrolytes are represented as ions.
Strong acid An acid that completely dissociates to produce H+ ions in solution.
Strong base A base that completely dissociates to produce OH- ion in solution.
Salt An ionic compound.
Oxidation-reduction reaction A chemical reaction involving the transfer of electrons.
Combustion reaction A chemical reaction involving oxygen as one of the reactants that produces enough heat so that a flame results.
Decomposition reaction A chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into simpler compounds, or to the component elements.
Synthesis reaction A chemical reaction in which a compound is formed from simpler materials.
Created by: arreis21