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Chemistry J-Z

kelvin The SI Unit of temperature. It is the degrees celsius plus 273.
kinetic energy Energy an object has because of its mass and velocity. Objects that don't move have no kinetic energy. (Kinetic Energy=0.5* mass*velocity2.
Le Chatlier's principle States that a system at equilibrum will oppose any change in the equilibrium conditions.
Lewis structures A way of representing molecular structures based on valence electrons.
limiting reagent The reactant that will be exhausted first.
line spectra Spectra generated by excited substances. Consists of radiation with only specific wavelengths.
mass number The number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
mixture Composed of two or more substances, but each keeps its original properties.
molality The number of moles of solute (the material dissolved) per kilogram of solvent (what the solute is dissolved in).
molar An term expressing molarity, the number of moles of solute/ liters of solution
molarity The number of moles of solute (the material dissolved) per liter of solution. Used to express the concentration of a solution.
mole A collection of 6.023* 1023 number of objects. Usually used to mean molecules.
molecular formula Shows the number of atoms of each element present in a molecule.
molecular geometry Shape of a molecule, based on the relative positions of the atoms.
molecular weight The combined weight (as given on the periodic table) of all the elements in a compound.
molecule Two or more atoms chemically combined.
mole fraction The number of moles of a particular substance expressed as a fraction of the total number of moles.
neutral An object that does not have a positive or negative charge.
neutron A particle found in the nucleus of an atom. It is almost identical in mass to a proton, but carries no electric charge.
nm An abbreviation for nano-meters. A nano-meter is equal to 10-9 meters.
nucleus The central part of an atom that contains the protons and neutrons. Plural nuclei.
octet In Lewis structures the goal is to make almost all atoms have an octet. This means that they will have access to 8 electrons regularly, even if they do have to share some of them.
orbitals An energy state in the atomic model which describes where an electron will likely be.
oxidation number A number assigned to each atom to help keep track of the electrons during a redox-reaction.
oxidation reaction A reaction where a substance loses electrons
oxidation-reduction-reaction A reaction involving the transfer of electrons.
oxyacid When one or more hydroxide (OH) groups are bonded to a central atom.
parent isotope An element that undergoes nuclear decay.
partial pressures The pressure exerted by a certain gas in a mixture.
particle Small portion of matter
percent composition Expresses the weight ratio between different elements in a compound.
periodic table Grouping of the known elements by their number of protons. There are many other trends such as size of elements and electronegativity that are easily expressed in terms of the periodic table.
pH Measures the acidity of a solution. It is the negative log of the concentration of the hydrogen ions in a substance.
photons Massless packet of energy, which behaves like both a wave and a particle.
physical property A property that can be measured without changing the chemical composition of a substance.
pi bonds A type of covalent bond in which the electron density is concentrated around the line bonding the atoms.
Planck Planck contributed to the understanding of the electromagnetic spectrum by realizing that the relationship between the change in energy and frequency is quantized according to the equation delta E=hv where h is Planck's constant.
pOH Measures the basicity of a solution. It is the negative log of the concentration of the hydroxide ions.
polar molecules Molecule with a partial charge.
potential energy The energy an object has because of its composition or position.
pressure Force per unit area.
principal quantum number The number related to the amount of energy an electron has and therefore describing which shell the electron is in.
products The compounds that are formed when a reaction goes to completion.
proportion An equality between two ratios.
proton Particle found in a nucleus with a positive charge. Number of these gives atomic number.
quantum Something which comes in discrete units. Eg, money is quantized (divided into units); it comes in quanta (divisions) of one cent.
quantum numbers Set of numbers used to describe an electron's position.
radiant energy Energy which is transmitted away from its source. eg, energy that is emitted when electrons transition down from one level to another.
radiation Energy in the form of photons.
radioactive Substance containing an element which decays.
ratio The relative size of two quantities expressed as the quotient of one divided by the other; the ratio of a to b is written as a:b or a/b.
reactants Substances initially present in a chemical reaction.
reduction reaction A reaction in which a substance gains at least one electron.
salts Ionic compounds that can be formed by replacing one or more of the hydrogen ions of an acid with another positive ion.
shells Where the electrons generally stay. There are 4 types of electron shells: s, p, d and f shells.
sigma bonds A type of covalent bond in which most of the electrons are located in between the nuclei.
single bond When an electron pair is shared by two different elements.
SI Unit Stands for Systeme International d'Unites, a international system which established a uniform set of measurement units.
solute What is dissolved in a solution eg, the salt in saltwater.
solution Mixture of a solid and a liquid where the solid never settles out, eg saltwater.
solvent Liquid in which something is dissolved, eg the water in saltwater.
specific heat The amount of heat it takes for a substance to be raised one degree C.
spontaneous reaction A reaction that will proceed without any outside energy.
state property A state property is a quantity that is independent of how the substance was prepared. Examples of state properties are altitude, pressure, volume, temperature and internal energy.
states of matter Solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Plasma is a "soup" of diassociated nuclei and electrons, normally found only in stellar objects.
stoichiometry The study of the relationships between amounts of products and reactants.
STP Standard temperature and pressure. This is 0oC and 1 atm.
sublevel One part of a level, each of which can hold different numbers of electrons.
term Each compound or element in a chemical equation.
thermodynamics The study of heat and energy flow in chemical reactions.
titration Reacting a solution of unknown concentration with a solution of a known concentration for the purpose of finding out more about the unknown solution.
valence electrons The electrons in the outermost shell of an atom.
van der Waals equation An equation for non-ideal gasses that accounts for intermolecular attraction and the volumes occupied by the gas molecules.
velocity Speed of an object; the change in position over time.
volume Measures the size of an object using length measurements in three dimensions.
wave A signal which propagates through space, much like a water wave moves through water.
wavelength On a periodic curve, the length between two consecutive troughs (low points) or peaks (high points).
weak acid Substances capable of donating hydrogen but do not completely ionize in solution.
weak bases Substances capable of accepting hydrogen but do not completely ionize in solution.
work Expression of the movement of an object against some force.
Created by: CVTMSCA