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Chemistry A-I

acceleration Measure of how fast velocity is changing, so we can think of it as the change in velocity over time. The most common use of acceleration is acceleration due to gravity which can also appear as the gravitational constant (9.8 m/s2).
acid Compound that gives off H+ ions in solution.
acidic Describes a solution with a high concentration of H+ ions.
anion Ions with a negative charge
anode The electrode where electrons are lost (oxidized) in redox reactions.
area Measures the size of a surface using length measurements in two dimensions.
associativity A property in math which states that: (A+B)+C=A+(B+C) and (A*B)*C=A*(B*C)
atmospheres Common units for measuring pressure.
atom The smallest object that retains properties of an element. Composed of electrons and a nucleus (containing protons and neutrons).
atomic number Number of protons in an element.
Avagadro's number Number representing the number of molecules in one (1) mole: 6.023 * 1023.
base Substance which gives off hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution.
basic Having the characteristics of a base.
Bohr's atom Bohr made significant contributions to the atom. He understood the line spectra-- the reason why only certain wavelengths are emitted when atoms jump down levels.
buffer solutions Solutions that resist changes in their pH, even when small amounts of acid or base are added.
catalyst Substance that speeds up a chemical process without actually changing the products of reaction
cathode Electrode where electrons are gained (reduction) in redox reactions.
cations Ion with a positive charge.
central atom In a Lewis structure, usually the atom that is the most electronegative.
charge Describes an object's ability to repel or attract other objects. Protons have positive charges while electrons have negative charges. Like charges repel each other while opposite charges, such as protons and electrons, attract one another.
chemical changes Processes or events that have altered the fundamental structure of something.
chemical equation An expression of a fundamental change in the chemical substances.
closure A mathmatical term which says that if you operated on any two real numbers A and B with +,-,* or /, you get a real number
colligative properties Properties of a solution that depend only on the number of particles dissolved in it, not the properties of the particles themselves. The main colligative properties addressed at this web site are boiling point elevation and freezing point depression.
combustion When substances combine with oxygen and release energy.
commutativity A math property which states: A+B=B+A and A*B=B*A
compound Two or more atoms joined together chemically, with covalent or ionic bonds.
concentration The amount of substance in a specified space.
conjugate acid A substance which can lose a H+ ion to form a base.
conjugate base A substance which can gain a H+ ion to form an acid.
covalent bonds When two atoms share at least one pair of electrons.
daughter isotope In a nuclear equation the compound remaining after the parent isotope (the original isotope) has undergone decay. A compound undergoing decay, such as alpha decay, will break into an alpha particle and a daughter isotope.
decay Change of an element into a different element, usually with some other particle(s) and energy emitted.
decimal The number of digits to the right of the decimal point in a number
dense A compact substance or a substance with a high density.
density Mass per unit volume of a substance.
dipole-dipole forces Intermolecular forces that exist between polar molecules. Active only when the molecules are close together. The strengths of intermolecular attractions increase when polarity increases.
dispersion forces (also called London dispersion forces) Dispersion is an intermolecular attraction force that exists between all molecules. These forces are the result of the movement of electrons which cause slight polar moments. Dispersion forces are generally very weak but as the molecular weight increa
dissociation Breaking down of a compound into its components.
distributivity A math property which states: A*(B+C)=(A*B)+(A*C)
double bond When an atom is bonded to another atom by two sets of electron pairs.
effusion Movement of gas molecules through a small opening.
electrochemical cell Gives an electric current with a steady voltage as a result of an electron transfer reaction.
electrodes Device that moves electrons into or out of a solution by conduction.
electrolysis Changing the chemical structure of a compound using electrical energy.
electromagnetic spectrum Complete range of wavelengths which light can have. These include infared, ultraviolet, and all other types of electromagnetic radiation, as well as visible light.
electron One of the parts of the atom having a negative charge. Indivisible particle with a charge of -1.
electron geometry Structure of a compound based on the arrangement of its electrons.
electronegativity Measure of a substances's ability to attract electrons.
electrostatic forces Forces between charged objects.
element Substance consisting of only one type of atom.
empirical formula Formula showing the simplist ratio of elements in a compound.
endothermic Reaction that absorbs heat from its surroundings as the reaction proceeds.
energy Ability to do work.
enthalpy Change in heat.
entropy Measure of the disorder of a system.
equilibrium When the reactants and products are in a constant ratio. The forward reaction and the reverse reactions occur at the same rate when a system is in equilibrium.
equilibrium constant Value that expresses how far the reaction proceeds before reaching equilibrium. A small number means that the equilibrium is towards the reactants side while a large number means that the equilibrium is towards the products side.
equilibrium expressions The expression giving the ratio between the products and reactants. The equilibrium expression is equal to the concentration of each product raised to its coefficient in a balanced chemical equation and multiplied together, divided by the concentrat i
equivelence point Occurs when the moles of acid equal the moles of base in a solution.
exothermic Reaction that gives off heat to the environment.
exponentiation Raising something to a power.
force An entity that when applied to a mass causes it to accelerate. Sir Isaac Newton's Second Law of mation states: the magnitude of a force = mass * acceleration.
free electron Electron which is not attached to a nucleus.
free energy The energy of a system that is available to do work at constant temperature and pressure.
frequency Number of events in a given unit of time. When describing a moving wave, means the number of peaks which would pass a stationary point in a given amount of time.
geiger counter Instrument that measures radiation output.
Graham's law The rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular weight.
half life The amount of time it takes for half an initial amount to disintegrate.
Heisenberg uncertainty principle This principle states that it is not possible to know a particle's location and momentum precisely at any time.
hydrogen bonding Strong type of intermolecular dipole-dipole atttraction. Occurs between hydrogen and F, O or N.
hydrolysis When water reacts with another substance and as a result the oxygen in water makes a bond with the substance.
ideal gas law PV=nRT;Describes the relationship between pressure (P), temperature (T), volume (V), and moles of gas (n). It is not completely accurate, and becomes less accurate as conditions become less ideal.
identity A math property which states: A+0=A and A*1=A.
intermolecular forces Forces between molecules.
intramolecular forces Forces within molecules. Forces caused by the attraction and repulsion of charged particles.
inverse A math property which states: A+(-A)=0 and A*(1/A)=1
ion Removing or adding electrons to an atom creates an ion (a charged object very similar to an atom).
ion-dipole forces Intermolecular force that exist between charged particles and partially charged molecules.
ionic bonds When two oppositely charged atoms share at least one pair of electrons but the electrons spend more time near one of the atoms than the other.
ionization energy Energy required to remove an electron from a specific atom.
ionizes When a substance breaks into its ionic components.
isotopes Elements with the same number of protons but have different numbers of neutrons, and thus different masses.
Created by: CVTMSCA