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BioChemistry

Exam 3

QuestionAnswer
___ is the membrane protein that catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP Adenylate cyclase
Important secondary messengers include cAMP, cGMP, calcium ion,___, and diacylglycerol. inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP¬3)
___ binds to β-andrenergic receptors Epinephrine, Adrenaline
EGF signaling is terminated by the action of phosphatases and the hydrolysis of ___ by Ras. GTP
In the second stage of catabolism, numerous small molecules are converted into ___ , a central molecule in metabolism acetyl CoA
In aerobic organisms ___ is the ultimate acceptor of electrons O2
___ is the chemical currency of metabolism ATP
Glycolysis produces a net of ___ moles of ATP per one mole of glucose Two
A potent allosteric activator of liver phosphofructokinase is ___ which is produced from fructose-6-phosphate by PFK2 fructose-2,6-bisphophate
The ___ cycle refers to the metabolic reactions by which glucose is converted into lactate in skeletal muscle, and then lactate converted back into glucose in the liver Cori
What two 3-carbon molecules are generated by the cleavage of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate? Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate
What metabolic type of reaction involves the cleavage of bonds by the addition of water? Hydrolytic
The reduced form of flavin adenine dinucleotide is FADH2
What metabolic type of reaction involves the addition of a functional group across a double bond or the removal of a functional group to form a double bond? Lyase
An example of an isomerization reaction would be the conversion of citrate to isocitrate
Which of the following is a mechanism by which enzyme catalytic activity is controlled? Allosteric control, feedback inhibition, covalent modification --- A,B, and C
Lactose intolerance is caused by a deficiency of Lactase
The primary raw materials for gluconeogenesis are lactate and alanine
How many high-energy phosphate bonds are expended in gluconeogenesis? Six
Metabolic processes are regulated by transcriptional regulation of the amount of enzyme, allosteric control of enzyme activity,accessibility of substrates by compartmentalization ---- A, B, and C
This calls of compounds has the molecular formula of (CH2O)n Monosaccharides
These are stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other Enantiomers
These are monosaccharides differ at a single asymmetric carbon Epimers
This is among the most abundant organic molecule in the biosphere Cellulose
This is a test solution used to identify reducing and non-reducing sugars Fehling's
The storage form of glucose in animals Glycogen
The class of glycoproteins with predominantly N-acetylgalactosamine moieties Mucoproteins
These are the enzymes that synthesize oligosaccharides Glycosyltransferases
Molecule to which most sugars are attached prior to transfer UDP
These proteins bind to specific carbohydrate structures Lectins
___ is a stereoisomer that is not a mirror image Diastereoisomer
___ is a five membered ring formed from a monosaccharide Furanose
When an open chain monosaccharide cyclizes into a ring Hemiacetal
_______________ is a galactose joined to a glucose by a β-1,4 glycosidic bond. Lactose
Plant starch is composed of amylose a linear polymer of glucose and a branched polymer of glucose referred to as ___ amylopectin
Maltose is composed of two molecules of glucose linked together by a ___ glycosidic bond alpha 1 , 4
Carbohydrates are A and B - Aldehydes with two or more hydroxyl groups, ketones with two or more hydroxyl groups
The simplest carbohydrates are dihydroxyacetone and d- and l-glyceraldehyde
An aldehyde and alcohol can react to form a hemiacetal
Fructose can cyclize to both pyranose and furanose ring forms
The nutritional storage forms of glucose in plants are B and C - amylose and amylopectin
What is the additional metabolite that is required for the conversion of 3-phospoglycerate to 2-phospoglycerate? 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate
In N-linked glycoproteins, the carbohydrate portion is attached to a(n)_____________ residue in the protein. Asparagine
A given protein with several potential glycosylation sites can cave many different glycosylated structures called ________________. Glycoforms
The influenza virus recognizes _______________ residues of glycoproteins present on cell surface sialic acid
In C-type lectins, a _______________ acts as a bridge between the carbohydrate and the protein. calcium ion
________________ is a membrane lipid composed of sphingosine, fatty acid, and a simple sugar. cerebroside
__________________ contain a double bond three carbons from the distal end of the fatty acid. oo-3 fatty acids
In phosphoglycerides, the fatty acids are linked to the glycerol backbone by the ______________ linkages. ester
Ionized fatty acids readily form ______________ in aqueous solutions. micelles
___________________ are aqueous compartments enclosed by a lipid bilayer. Lipid vesicles or liposomes
___________________ membrane proteins are bound primarily by electrostatic and hydrogen bond interactions with the head groups of lipids. Peripheral
Some proteins are anchored to the membrane by being covalently attached to a _______________ group by a thioester linkage to a specific cysteine residue. palmitoyl
The rate of diffusion is such that a phospholipid molecule can travel from one end of a bacterium to the other in _______________ of time. one second
The temperature at which a phospholipid membrane transitions from a rigid to a fluid state is referred to as _______________. Tm or melting temperature
In animals, ________________ is the key regulator of membrane fluidity. cholesterol
Which of the following membranes would be the most fluid? A bilayer made of lipids with polyunsaturated 16 carbon-fatty acids
Which of the following statements is consistent with the structure of biological membranes? Which of the following statements is consistent with the structure of biological membranes?
How do the membranes of archaea differ from bacteria and eukaryotes? The lipids do not contain a carboxylic acid ester, but instead have an ether link to the glycerol. The alkyl chains are branched.The stereochemistry of the central carbon of glycerol is inverted. A, B, and C are all correct
What force(s) stabilize(s) the lipid bilayers? van der Waals interactions and Electrostatic and hydrogen bonding between the polar heads and surrounding water - A and B
The degree of membrane fluidity depends on the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids
Which of the following membrane-bound organelles is thought to have evolved from bacteria by endosymbosis? Mitochondria
The most common motif found in membrane spanning proteins is alpha helices of nonpolar amino acids that pass through the membrane.
Hydrophobic molecules can be covalently attached to proteins to increase membrane association. Type(s) of group(s) include palmitoyl groups attached via cys residues. glycolipid structures attached to the carboxy terminus. farnesyl groups attached via cys residues. A B and C
The low incidence of protein or lipid flip-flop in a membrane preserves membrane asymmetry.
Which of the following helps regulate membrane fluidity in animals? Cholesterol
Protein kinase A phosphorylates serine and ___________ residues. threonine
____________ is the membrane protein that catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP. Adenylate cyclase
The cytosolic side, or β subunit, of the insulin receptor is a ________________ kinase. tyrosine
The ________ receptor is approximately 50% identical in amino acid sequence with the EGF receptor and has similar domain structure, but it does not bind any known ligand. Her2
Important secondary messengers include cAMP, cGMP, calcium ion, _______________________, and diacylglycerol. inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate
Input from several signaling pathways is called _____________________. cross talk
_______________________ binds to β-andrenergic receptors Epinephrine, Adrenaline
The binding of IP3 to the IP3 receptor results in the release of __________ from the endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion
The catalytically active form of the insulin receptor is a result of phosphorylation of specific ____________ residues in the activation loop. : tyrosine
EGF signaling is terminated by the action of phosphatases and the hydrolysis of _____________ by Ras. GTP
_____________ is the first stage of catabolism and involves the degradation of macromolecules in food into smaller units. Digestion
Carbohydrate residues attached to the membrane lipids are always positioned on the extracellular side of the membrane
What force(s) stabilize(s) the lipid bilayers? van der Waals interactions and Electrostatic and hydrogen bonding between the polar heads and surrounding water (A and B)
The degree of membrane fluidity depends on the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids
Which of the following membrane-bound organelles is thought to have evolved from bacteria by endosymbosis? Mitochondria
The most common motif found in membrane spanning proteins is alpha helices of nonpolar amino acids that pass through the membrane.
Hydrophobic molecules can be covalently attached to proteins to increase membrane association. Type(s) of group(s) include palmitoyl groups attached via cys residues, glycolipid structures attached to the carboxy terminus, farnesyl groups attached via cys residues (all of the above)
The low incidence of protein or lipid flip-flop in a membrane preserves membrane asymmetry.
Which of the following helps regulate membrane fluidity in animals? Cholesterol
Created by: AshCha