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CHEM 113- Unit 2

(effect of K when) you multiply constituents in an equation by 2 square K
(effect of K when) opposite reaction 1/K
Kp= Kc(RT)^(delta)n (moles gaseous product-moles gaseous reactant)
check 5% x/[A]initial
when you use simplifying assumption small K, large initial concentrations
Le Chatlier's Principle when a chemical system @ eq. is subjected to stress, it shifts away from the stress
changes in pressure higher= side w/ fewer moles lower= side w/ more moles
effect (exothermic) when heat is added K decreases
effect (endothermic) when heat is added K increases
strong acids (6) HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4
nitric acid HNO3 (strong)
sulfuric acid H2SO4 (strong)
perchloric acid HClO4 (strong)
strong bases- 1A hydroxides Li-Cs (OH)
strong bases- heavy 2A hydroxides Ca-Ba (OH)2
carboxylic acid -COOH
oxoacid # O's> # ionizable protons
hydrohalic acid H+halogen
ion-product constant (Kw)=[H30+][OH-] (or [H20]^2) 1x10^-14 @ 25C
pH -log[H30+]
pOH+pH 14 (at 25C)
conjugate acid-base pairs differ by a single H+ (acid had 1 more)
bronsted-lowry definition acid= donates H+; base= accepts H+
stronger acids have a larger Ka (they dissociate more)
Arrhenius acid ionizable H+ atoms
Arrhenius base OH- ions
amphiprotic can accept H+ and be a base, can donate H+ to act as an acid
Created by: melaniebeale