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# chem chap12-13 study

How can you tell if a solution is unsaturated? The solution, under normal conditions, can absorb more solute.
How can you tell if a solution is saturated? The solution will not absorb any more solute.
How can you tell if a solution is supersaturated? The solution rapidly forms crystals when disturbed by dust or similar.
How do you use a solubility curve? Define the variable you know, convert it into one of the variables graphed on the curve, and run it to the curve of the solute you want.
How do you calculate molarity? Take the moles of solute you have and divide it by liters of solution.
How do you calculate molality? Take the moles of solute you have and divide it by the kilograms of solvent.
How do you calculate dilution changes? Use the formula (1st molar mass)*(1st volume)=(2nd molar mass)*(2nd volume)
How do most ionic compounds dissolve in water? The water surrounds an ion with its oppositely charged side facing the ion, and allows it to float away.
How do you write an ionic equation? Take the two ionic compounds you have and split them up into ions. Write each individual ion out along with their charge.
How do you write a net ionic equation? Same as an ordinary ionic equation, but remove ions that don't form precipitate.
What factors affect the rates of dissolving? Three things: Surface area, agitation, and heating.
What affects solubility? Nature of solute, temperature or state, and pressure.
How do aqueous solutions dissolve? Molecular nonelectrolytes merely spread out, ionic compounds split into ions, and molecular electrolytes split into ions by reacting with water.
What are the colligative properties? The pressure, or height, at which solutions boil or freeze, i.e. vapor pressure.
What is the formula to calculate the change in freezing and boiling points? Change=molar mass*change in solvent*ions in solvent
What is the formula to calculate the freezing and boiling point at standard pressure? Solution point=solvent point+change
What is osmotic pressure? The balance between pure solvent attempting to balance out a solution and vapor pressure pushing it back with a semipermeable membrane balancing them.
Created by: lapplebey

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