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P1 topic 2

The electromagnetic spectrum

What do all electromagnetic waves have in common? They all travel at 300,000km/s in a vacuum, and they are all transverse
What is the EM spectrum, in increasing wavelength and decreasing frequency? Gamma rays X-rays Ultra-violet rays Visible light Infrared Microwaves Radiowaves
TRUE OR FALSE: the EM spectrum is continuous. TRUE: the spectrum is continuous so all values of wavelength are possible
Describe in terms of frequency, the dangers of electromagnetic waves. The greater the frequency of an EM wave, the more energy it transfers, therefore the more hazardous it is
What are the dangers and uses of microwaves? DANGERS: can heat water, so since 70% of our bodies are made up of water there is a risk of internal heating of body cells USES: satellite transmission, e.g. they can carry TV signals. They also vibrate & heat up molecules so they're used in cooking
What are the dangers and uses of infrared? DANGERS: our skin absorbs IR radiation which we feel as heat, and in large doses it can damage our cells and lead to skin burns USES: TV remote controls and cooking. Since all warm objects give off heat as IR radiation it can be used in thermal imaging
What are the dangers and uses of ultraviolet? DANGERS: can damage surface cells leading to cancer. Can damage our eyes, leading to cataracts which is a clouding of the lens USES: Fluorescent lamps, detecting forged bank notes, disinfecting water
What are the dangers and uses of x-rays? DANGERS: can be absorbed by the body and can cause mutations in DNA leading to cancer USES: observing the internal structure of objects, medical x-rays
What are the dangers and uses of gamma rays? DANGERS: can be absorbed by the body and can cause mutations in DNA leading to cancer USES: can kill cells so used to sterilize food and kill cancer (radiotherapy). Can also detect cancer
What are the uses of visible light? Vision, photography and illumination
What are the uses of radio waves? Broadcasting, satellite transmissions (can carry TV signals), communications
How can gamma rays detect cancer? Can detect cancer- a radioactive chemical that emits gamma rays is injected into blood, the chemical collects inside cancer cells and a scanner locates the cancer by finding the source of the gamma rays.
What is a radioactive source? Materials that emit ionising radiation all the time
What is ionising radiation and what are 3 examples? Radiation or certain types of high-energy particles that remove electrons from atoms to form ions. Alpha, beta and gamma are types of ionising radiation and all transfer energy from the radioactive material to their surroundings
Created by: 100000206139919