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Amines, AminoAcids

Amines: Reactions, Prep and Uses. Amino Acids and Proteins.

What are the four types of Amines and 1 other compound containing Nitrogen: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Amines, plus Quaternary Ammonium Salts. Ammonia too.
How does the name of an Ammonium Salt and an Amine differ, even though they are both Amines? In an Ammonium salt, the suffix '-amine' changes to 'ammonium'
Why are amines usually soluable in water? Because they can form Hydrogen bonds between the Hydrogen in Water and Lone Pair of electrons on Nitrogen.
Are the boiling points of Amines higher or lower than Hydrocarbon chains of similar Mr? How about Alcohols of similar Mr? Amines have higher BP and MP compared to Hydrocarbons, because of the high electronegativity of Nitrogen allowing for HBonding. Oxygen is more electronegative though so MP of Alcohols is greater.
An amine can be described as two types of species, what are they? As a Base (Proton Acceptor) and as a Nucleophile (Electron Pair Donor).
How does the strength of Amines basic properties change depending on 1' or 2' etc? Primary and Secondary amines are stronger bases than Ammonia and Aryl compounds because of the Inductive effect of the carbons increasing electron density of the Nitrogen. aryl compounds reduce density by withdrawning electron density.
How do Amines react with Acids? In an Acid-Base reaction, forming an Ionic Salt.
How could an Ionic Salt be reverted to an Amine? The use of a strong base will cause H2O to be produced.
What type of mechanism can you expect from an Amine reacting with a Haloalkane (also with Ammonia)? Nucelophilic Substitution.
Why is trying to produce a Primary Amine from reacting Ammonia and a Haloalkane unreliable? Because a Primary Amine is a base too, and will react with the Haloalkane to form a Secondary Amine, this will then react to form Tertiary and then to Quaternary. The mixture would be of all these products.
How can an Amine be prepared from Haloalkane reliably? Reaction of Haloalkane with Cyanide Ion, then reducing this with the use of Nickle Catalyst and Hydrogen to form Amine (
How can Phenylamine be prepared? Benzene reaction with HNO3 in presence of Conc H2SO4 Catalyst (Nitration of Benzene), then reacting Nitrobenzene with HCl and Tin Catalyst to reduce the compounds to form Phenylamine and Water. (C6H5NO2 + 6[H] --Sn/HCL--> C6H5NH2 + 2 H2O).
What condistions are used in the formation of a Primary Amine from Haloalkane: Use of Cyanide Ion then Nickle Catalyst and H2 to reduce the Nitrile.
What conditions are used in the formation of Phenylamine from Bezene? First Nitration of Bezene with Conc H2SO4 and conc HNO3. Second reaction of Nitrobezene being reduced by HCl and Sn (Tin) Catalyst to form Phenylamine.
What type of reactions are occuring during the preperation of Amines? REDUCTION!
How are Quaternary Ammonium Salts useful? When they are part of a long chain, they can be used as Cationic Surfactants, which are used in hair conditioners to prevent static build up between hairs are they will lock water.
Created by: mjwilson1988