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Chemistry 050

Chemistry 050 Ch. 5 & 6

Becquerel discovered radioactivity
Rutherford alpha particle experiment results in proposal of a heavy, dense atomic nucleus
Chadwick discovered the neutron, a particle w/ mass but no charge
Thomson experimentally showed the existance of the atom; also discovered proton are particles
sub-atomic particles neutron, proton, electron
mass number sum of protons & neutrons in the nucleus
atomic number number of protons in the nucleus
isotopes atoms of an element, having the same atomic number but different atomic masses
nucleus the central part of an atom that contains all its protons & neutrons. The nucleus is very dense & has a positive electrical charge
electron a particle w/ a negative electrical charge & a mass of 9.110x10(-28)g
proton a particle w/ actual mass of 1.673x10(-24). It's relative charge (+1) is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign, to the charge of the electron
subatomic particles particles found within the atom, mainly protons, neutrons, & electrons
Michael Faraday discovered the ions
# of neutrons mass number - atomic number
AMU atomic mass unit
AMU a unit of mass equal to one twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom
atomic mass the average relative mass of the isotopes of that element compared to the atomic mass of carbon-12 (exactly 12.0000...amu)
Greek model of matter 4 elements-earth, air, water, fire
neutral atom contains the same number of protons & electrons
law of definite composition states that a compound always contains 2 or more elements chemically combined in a definite proportion by mass
law of multiple proportions states that atoms of 2 or more elements may combine in different ratios to produce more than one compound
law (theory) a summary of observed behavior
model (theory) an attempt to explain the observed behavior
law remains constant (don't undergo modifications)
theories (models) sometimes fail & are modified or discarded over time
atom vs ion atoms are the smallest particle of an element; ions are a positively or negatively charged atoms or group of atoms
laughing gas N2O
Stock (nomenclature) System a system that uses Roman numerals to name elements that form more than one type of cation. (For example Fe2+, iron(II); Fe3+, iron (III)
cation a postively charged ion
anion a negatively charge ion
atomic number determines the identity of an atom
isotopes an atom of an element that has the same atomic number but a different atomic mass. Since their atomic numbers are identical, isotopes vary only in the number of neutrons in the nucleus
ion a positively or negatively charged atom or group of atoms
binary compound a compound composed of 2 different elements
binary ionic compound formed when a metal combines with a nonmetal
binary ionic compound metal loses one or more electrons to become a cation while the nonmetal gains one or more electrons to become an anion
binary ionic compound the cation is written first followed by the anion
naming cations the lower charge cation has the -ous ending
naming cations the higher charged cation has the -ic ending
polyatomic ions an ion that contains 2 or more elements (ex.hydroxide OH-)
naming acids 1st look at the polyatomic ion following the hydrogen; 2nd the polyatomic ion is modified by (1) -ate changes to an -ic ending; (2) -ite changes to an -ous ending
naming acids the compound with the -ic ending contains more oxygen than the one with the -ous ending
diatomic molecules two atoms bonded together to form a molecule
diatomic elements H2, O2, N2, F2, Cl2, Br2, & I2
commonly polyatomic S8 (sulfur) & P4 (phosporus)
cations named the same as their parent atoms (ex. atom-potassium K, Ion-potassium ion K+)
cation chemical equation ex. Mg--> Mg2+ + 2e-
cation any neutral atom that loses an electron
anion any neutral atom that gains an electron
anion O+2e- --> O2-
to name an anion consisting of only one element, use the stem of the parent element name & change the ending to -ide (ex. flourine to flouride ion)
ions most often formed when a metal combines w/ nonmetals
binary compounds contain only 2 different elements
binary compounds many are formed when metal combines w/ nonmetal to form binary ionic compoun
binary compounds the metal loses one or more electrons to become an cation while the nonmetal gains one or more electrons to become an anion
binary compounds the cation is written first in the formula, followed by the anion
metal ions when it only has 2 cation types, the name of the metal is modified w/ the suffixes -ous & -ic
metal ions the lower charge cation is given the -ous ending, & the higher one, the -ic ending
metal ions naming ex. FeCl2- ferrous chloride (fe2+ lower charge cation)
metal ions naming ex. FeCl3-ferric chloride(Fe3+ higher charge cation)
binary compounds containing 2 nonmetals compounds between nonmetals are molecular, not ionic
NO-/3 Nitrate
NO-/2 Nitrite
PO3-/4 Phospate
SO2-/4 Sulfate
SO2-/3 Sulfite
OH- Hydroxide
CN- Cyanide
NH+/4 Ammonium (cation)
HCO-/3 Hydrogen Carbonate
HSO-/4 Hydrogen Sulfate
BrO-/3 Bromate
CO2-/3 Carbonate
ClO-/3 Chlorate
CrO2-/4 Chromate
MnO-/4 Permanganate
ClO- hypochlorite
ClO-/2 chlorite
ClO-/3 chlorate
ClO-/4 perchlorate
HClO hypochlorous acid
HClO2 chlorous acid
HClO3 chloric acid
HClO4 perchloric acid
KHSO4 potassium hydrogen sulfate
Ca(HSO3)2 calcium hydrogen sulfite
HH4HS ammonium hydrogen sulfide
MgNH4PO4 Magnesium ammonium phosphate
NaH2PO4 sodium dihydrogen phosphate
Na2HPO4 sodium hydrogen phosphate
KHC2O4 potassium hydrogen oxalate
KAl(SO4)2 potassium aluminum sulfate
Al(HCO3)3 aluminum hydrogen carbonate
H2SO4 sulfuric acidH2SO3
H2SO3 sulfurous acid
HNO3 Nitric acid
HNO2 nitrous acid
H2CO3 carbonic acid
H3BO3 boric acid
H3PO4 phosphoric acid
H3PO3 phosphorous acid
HIO3 iodic acid
HC2H3O2 acetic acid
H2C2O4 oxalic acid
HBrO3 bromic acid
BO3-/3 borate ion
PO3-/3 phospite ion
IO-/3 iodate ion
C2H3O-/2 acetate ion
C2O2-/4 oxalate ion
BrO-/3 bromate ion
Created by: smkit03