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# Statistics

### Final Flash cards

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Descriptive | Methods of organizing, summarizing, and presenting data in an informative way |

Inferential | The methods used to estimate a property of a population on the basis of a sample |

Qualitative | A type of variable. Such as a Brand, Marital status, Hair color, eye color, gender, Brands, |

Quantitative | A type of variable with a discrete or continuous variable. examples checking ages of company presidents, children in a family, strokes in a golf hole, tv sets owned. or continuous an amount of inventory paid, weight of a student, yearly rainfall. |

Continuous | yrly rainfall, amount of income tax paid, weight of a student,yrly rainfall etc. |

Discrete | children in a family, tv sets owned, strokes on a golf hole. |

Nominal | Data that may only be classified. Such as Jersey numbers, Make of a car, name of your school, type of car you drive or name of a book. This one is easy to remember because nominal sounds like name. is the lowest level. Only names are meaningful here. |

Ordinal | Data that is Ranking of favorite sports, the order of people's place in a line, order of runners finishing a race or more often using rating scales. On a 10 point scale. easy one to remember, ordinal sounds like order. adds an order to the names. |

Interval | Difference between values. Such as dress size. Most common example is temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. Difference between 29 and 30 degrees is the same magnitude as the difference between 78 and 79. many points on the scale likely are of equal intervals |

Ratio | meaningful 0 point ratio between values.data is interval data with a natural zero point. For example, time is ratio since 0 time is meaningful. Degrees Kelvin has a 0 point (absolute 0) and the steps in both these scales have the same degree of magnitude. |

Random (Type of Sampling) | to putting everyone's name into a hat and drawing several names. Each of the pop. equal chance of occuring. While this is the preferred way of sampling, it is often difficult to do. It requires a complete list of every element in the pop. be obtained |

Systematic (Type of Sampling) | easier to do than random sampling. In systematic sampling, the list of elements is "counted off". That is, every kth element is taken. This is similar to lining everyone up and numbering off "1,2,3,4etc". When done all people numbered 4 would be used. |

Cluster (Type of Sampling) | sampling is accomplished by dividing the population into groups -- usually geographically. These groups are called clusters or blocks. The clusters are randomly selected, and each element in the selected clusters are used. |

Stratified (Type of Sampling) | divides the population into groups called strata. However, this time it is by some characteristic, not geographically. For instance, the population might be separated into males and females. A sample is taken from each of these... |

Population | An entire set of individuals of objects of interest or the measurements obtained from all individuals or objects of interest. Parameters are associated with populations. |

Sample | A portion of the population of interest. |

Convenience (Type of Sampling) | sampling is very easy to do, but it's probably the worst technique to use. In convenience sampling, readily available data is used. That is, the first people the surveyor runs into. |