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Basic Chemistry

Basic Chemistry- A&P 2A

TermDefinition
Matter anything that occupies space and has a mass, composed of atoms and elements (solids, liquid, gas)
Mass amount of matter packed in that space
Energy capacity to do work or put matter into motion
Kinetic Energy resulting in action or movement (bouncing ball)
Potential Energy stored energy, inactive (rubberband)
Chemical energy stored in chemical bonds (released when bonds are broken) (ex. ATP broken down to ADP)
Electrical energy movement of charged particles (used by nervous and muscular system)
Mechanical Energy involved in movement (used by muscular and skeletal system)
Radiant or Electromagnetic Energy energy contained in light waves or any other form of radiation
Atoms small particles that make up matter and elements, composed of smaller subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons)
Elements composed of only one type of atom, cannot be broken down into simpler substances
Ion charged atoms which gain or lose electrons (+ or - charge) (used for nerve impulses and muscle contractions)
Isotope neutral atoms which have lost or gained neutrons
Radioisotopes heavier isotopes which decompose to become more stable (useful in science and medicine)
Radioactivity release of energy and matter that results from changes in the nucleus of an atom
Compound 2 or more kinds of atoms bonded together
Organic Compounds Large, must contain carbon and hydrogen (often contains oxygen or nitrogen) (Carbs, lipids, proteins)
Inorganic Compounds Small, simple, essential to the body. Any substance in which 2 or more elements other than carbon are combined (water, salt, acids, bases)
Water 60-80% of cell volume, absorbs and releases heat
Water can form COLLOIDS with: particles too large to dissolve (oil), mixture stays in suspension, particles never fall out
Water is used as a REACTANT in: hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis(add or remove water to make a bond)
Water acts as: a cushion (between joints, spine, and fluids)
Salts a compound that dissociates to form ions (other than H+ or OH-), hardens bones and teeth and can be stored for later
Acid substances that release Hydrogen ions (H+) in water
Base Substance that bind H+
Bicarbonate Ions Not Hydroxide, but they bind H+
Neutralization Reaction Mixing of acid and a base to form salt and water
pH measurement of acidity and basicity (Acid=0, Base=14, Neutral=7)
Buffers Molecules that maintain stable pH in the the body (can bind or release Hydrogen)
Normal blood pH is: 7.35-7.45 pH
Carbohydrates Sugars and starches, main energy source for body cells, contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (2x hydrogen as oxygen, H2O)
Monosaccharides Simple sugars, 3-7 carbon atoms (glucose, fructose, galactose)
Disaccharides 2 sugars bonded together (double sugar) (maltose, lactose, sucrose), formed by Dehydration Synthesis
Polysaccharides Chains of sugars formed by Dehydration Synthesis
Glycogen stored glucose released by enhanced muscle activity
Lipids Fats, waxes, and oils, not water soluble (carbohydrate)
Lipids contain Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but less oxygen than carbohydrates
Fats Large molecules, 3 fatty acids bonded to 1 glycerol
Fats store: fuel in the body
Fats are located: under the skin and around the organs
Saturated Fatty Acids Hold as many hydrogens as it can possibly hold, thicker oils, no double or triple bonds between carbons
Unsaturated fatty acids doesn't hold as many hydrogens as it can, thinner oils, 1 or more double or triple bonds
Phospholipids lipids with a phosphorus group (part of cell membrane)
Steriods Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol
Eicosanoids Derived from fatty acids (prostoglandins-induce labor contractions)
Proteins Large molecules composed of (more than 50) chains of amino acids and polypeptides
Primary structure of protein linear sequence of amino acids in proteins
Secondary structure of protein coiling of the amino acid chain
Tertiary structure of protein helix of pleated sheets fold upon themselves to produce a ball or globular
Quaternary structure of protein 2 or more protein chains form a complex protein (ex. hemoglobin)
Protein Denaturation protein broken down by temperature or pH changes
Fibrous Proteins strand like for support (collagen, keratin, muscle proteins)
Created by: kashmirsky