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Aromatic Chemistry

Benzene, Aromatic Reactions and Mechanisms.

What Shape is Benzene: It is a Planar molecule.
Why is Benzene more stable than theoretical alternate single and double bonds? Because it has a Delocalised system of P electrons above and below the ring structure, essentially giving each c-c bond 3 electrons. Making it slightly between a Single and a Double bond.
What is the bond length in benzene Carbon bonds? It is an intermediate of the C-C bond which is longer (154pm) and C=C (135pm) of 140pm. This is because of the delocalised electrons present.
Why does Benzene undergo Electrophilic Substitution rather than addition? Because the loss of a H+ ion from the Carbocation formed by adding a group to bezene will restore its Aromatic properties by recreating the Cyclic Pi-System of electrons.
Name two reactions that occur with Benzene required: Nitration (by Nitronium or Nitryl Ion) of Benzene and Fidel Crafts acylation.
Give the conditions, name the mechanism for and uses of the products from the Nitration of Bezene: Conc H2SO4 and HNO3 acids are present to prepare the electrophile, done at under 50degrees C to prevent further substitution of NO2 groups. Electrophilic Substituition. Uses are to form TNT, and Amines.
Give the conditions, name the mechanism for and uses of the products from the Acylation of Benzene: Undergoes Electrophilic Substitution. Done with AlCl3 Catalyst and products formed are useful in creating other substituted Aromatic compounds.
Why is the Hydrogenation of Bezene less exothermic than expected if it was alternate double bonding? Because the stability of benzene comes from the delocalised Pi System of eletrons, this causes increased stability, thus less energy can be lost when hydrogenated.
Created by: mjwilson1988



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