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Chemistry

Study for Winter Final

QuestionAnswer
What is an atom? It is the most basic component of matter or the building block of matter.
What is an element? It is made up of atoms. Arranged in the periodic table.
Each atom of the same element has the... same number of protons.
Describe electrons.. e- ; -1 charge unit; outside of the nucleus
Describe neutrons.. n^0 ; 0 charge unit; nucleus
Describe protons.. p+ ; +1 charge unit; nucleus
if charge on an atom is neutral then... #p+ = #e-
if the atom is charged a.k.a it is a ion then... #p+ /= #e-
each element has... atoms with a unique number of protons
the atomic number for a element = #p+
group 8 or 18 noble gases
group 7 or 17 halogens
group 1 Alkali metals
group 2 Alkali earth metals
group 3-12 transition metals
atomic mass = p+ + n^0
What is an isotope? It is the same element with different masses.
What is the scientific method? Observations, Hypothesis, Experiment, Theory, More Experiments
Accuracy vs. Precision Accuracy is very close to the true value. Precision is precise but not close to the true value.
1 orbital s-subshell
3 orbitals p-subshell
5 orbitals d-subshell
7 orbitals f-subshell
Hund's Rule electron spin maximized
diamagnetic all electrons are paired in orbitals
paramagnetic unpaired electrons are present in orbitals
shells energy level n = principle quantum number
subshells s,p,d,f l = angular momentum quantum numbers s = 0, p = 1, d = 2, f =3
orbitals ml = magnetic quantum number l = 0, ml = 0 l = 1, ml = -1, 0, +1 l = 2, ml = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 l = 3, ml = -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3 ms = spin quantum number; +1/2, -1/2
What is the poly exclusion principle? Each electron in an atom has to have a set of four unique quantum numbers.
What does ionic compounds involve? The transfer of electrons with an ionic bond. Electrostatic force between metals and non-metals.
What does covalent bonding involve. The sharing of electrons in non-metals.
How do you name a compound? Metal before non-metal. Add -ide to the end of the non-metal name.
What is an empirical formula? The lowest possible ratio.
mono = one
di = two
tri = three
tetra = four
penta = five
VSEPR valence shell electron pair repulsion
180 degree bond angle linear nolecule
120 degree bond angle trigonal planar
109.5 degree bond angle tetrahedral
5 connections VESPR trigonal bipyramid
6 connections VESPR octahedral
107.3 degree bond angle; lone pair of e- trigonal pyramidal
104.5 degree bond angle bent
What is electronegativity? The tendency of an atom to pull electron density toward itself in a covalent bond.
What is an isomer? Same chemical formula but different structure.
What are intermolecular forces? With other molecules. Dipole dipole force. Hydrogen bond is the strongest special type of dipole-dipole force. Dispersion force is the weakest between non-polar molecules.
What are intramolecular forces? Covalent bonds.
What is polarizibility? The ease with which the electron distribution in an atom or molecule can be distorted.
What is a solute? what gets dissolved
What is a solvent? what the solute is dissolved in (greater quantity in the solution)
What is complete combustion? Something is burned with C, H, and O. Results in the products of CO2 and H20.
methane CH4
butane C4H10
octane C8H18
What is a formation reaction? Reaction that forms a compound from its elements in their standard state. (phase at room temperature)
What are the diatomic elements? Cl2, O2, N2, Br2, H2, I2
What is percent yield? actual/theoretical ×100
heat is... proportional to change in temperature (q)
What is heat capacity? The amount of heat needed to raise a material or system by one degree.
What is specific heat? The amount of heat needed to raise one gram of material by one degree celsius.
formula for heat q = specific heat * mass * change in temperature
What does an endothermic reaction do? It consumes heat or uses heat.
What does an exothermic reaction do? It gives off heat.
What is enthalpy? The heat flow in or out of a system. (Triangle H)
Enthalpy less than 0 = exothermic reaction
Enthalpy greater than 0 = endothermic reaction
What is concentration? the amount of solute per volume of solution
Equation of molarity number moles of solute/ L of solution
Boyle's Law P and V are inversely proportional PV = k
Charles' Law T and V are directly related T=kV
Gay-Lusaac's Law T and P are directly related T=kP
Avagadro's Law V and n are directly related V=kn
Describe acids.. pH < 7; produce H+ in H20; donate H+
Describe bases.. pH > 7; produce OH-; accepts H+
Created by: lb150