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Chemistry 5 Mizuki

Friggin definitions...

Effloresce To lose water of hydration; the process occurs when the hydrate has a vapor pressure higher than that of water vapor in the air.
Solvation A process that occurs when an ionic solute dissolves; in solution, solvent molecules surround the positive and negative ions
Solute Dissolved particles in a solution
Solvent The dissolving medium in a solution
Surfactants Any substance that interferes with the hydrogen bonding between water molecules and thereby reduces surface tension; soaps and detergents are surfactants.
Desiccants A hygroscopic substance used as a drying agent
Colloids A mixture whose particles are intermediate in size between those of suspension and a solute solution
Hygroscopic A term describing salts and other compounds that remove moisture from the air.\
Aqueous Water that contains dissolved substances
Nonelectrolytes A compound that does not conduct an electric current in aqueous solution or in the molten state
Liquids that have strong intermolecular attraction have what kind of surface tension? High Surface Tension
Why does ice float on water?
What is the difference between solvent and solute?
Why do ionic compounds dissolve more easily? Because of free floating ions.
Colligative Properties A property of solution that depends only upon the number of solute particles, and not upon their identities; boiling-point elevation, freezing-point depression, and vapor-pressure lowering are colligative properties
Henry's Law At a given temperature the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid
Boiling Point Elevation The difference in temperature between the boiling point of a solution and the boiling point of the pure solvent
Supersaturated Solution A solution that contains more solute than it can theoretically hold at a given temperature; excess solute precipitates if a seed crystal is added
Molality The concentration of solute in a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 kilogram (100 g) of solvent
Saturated Solution A solution containing the maximum amount of solute for a given amount of solvent at a constant temperature and pressure; an equilibrium exists between undissolved solute and ions in solution
Molarity The concentration of solute in a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 liter of solution
Miscible Describes liquids that dissolve in one another in all proportions
Electrolytes A compound that conducts an electric current when it is in an aqueous solution or in the molten state; all ionic compounds are electrolytes, but most covalent compounds are not
Homogeneous A mixture that is uniform in composition; components are evenly distributed and not easily distinguished
Heterogeneous A mixture that is not uniform in composition; components are not evenly distributed and not easily distinguished
Suspension A mixture from which some of the particles settle out slowly upon standing
Solution A homogeneous mixture; consists of solutes dissolved in solvent
Brownian Motion The chaotic movement of colloidal particles, caused by collision with particles of the solvent in which they are dispersed
Tyndall Effect Scattering of light particles in a colloid or suspension, which causes a beam of light to become visible
Emulsion The colloidal dispersion of one liquid in another
Deliquescence Describes a substance that removes sufficient water from the air to form a solution; the solution formed has a lower vapor pressure than that of the water in the air
Freezing Point Depression The difference in temperature between the freezing point of a solution and the freezing point of the pure solvent
Concentration A measurement of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given quantity of solvent; usually expressed as mol/L
3 Factors That Affect Dissolution
What increases Solubility?
Mole Fraction
Created by: 100001042329918