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P1 Sound and Quakes

Edexcel P1 topic 4 UltraSounds Infrasounds Earthquakes

QuestionAnswer
What is the frequency range of normal human hearing? 20 to 20 000Hz
What are frequencies below 20Hz called? infrasounds
What are frequencies above 20 000Hz called? ultrasounds
What are infrasounds? Sounds with a frequency below 20Hz
What are ultrasounds? Sounds with a frequency above 20 000Hz
Which animals use infrasounds? Big animals like elephants and waves
What do those animals use infrasounds for? To communicate
Name two natural events that emits infrasounds Meteors and volcanic eruptions
Which animals use ultrasounds? Dolphins and bats
What do those animals use ultrasounds for? To hunt
Why would scientists use infrasounds in the jungle? To locate animals hiding; because you may not SEE the animals but you can record the infrasounds
Why do we use ultrasounds for foetus? To see if the foetus is growing properly
What is the epicentre? The point of the Earth surface directly above the focus of an Earthquake
What is the "focus" of an Earthquake? The point inside the Earth where the Earthquake starts from
Is a P-wave a longitudinal or a transverse wave? longitudinal
Is a S-wave a longitudinal or a transverse wave? transverse
Which wave arrives first? S or P? P
Why can scientists not predict Earthquakes? They can not measure the forces between the tectonic plates
Name 3 uses of ultrasounds. Sonar (detecting depth of oceans; depth of fish), scanning foetus, communications
How do you work out the DISTANCE of the echo knowing the TIME of the echo and the SPEED of sound? Distance = time x speed
How do you work out the DEPTH of the oceans knowing the DISTANCE of the echo? Depth = distance echo / 2
What makes seismic waves? An earthquake or an explosion
What is the instrument that records Earthquakes? A seismo-meter
How do scientits work out the location of an Earthquake? 1)Work out the time difference between when the Pwave and the Swave arrive;2) work out the distance;3) draw a circle of a radius equal to that distance; 4) repeat this for 3 different positions; 5) the epicentre is at the crossing of the 3 circles
Why is there Earthquakes? When two tectonic plates slide past each other
What is the inner core? Solid Iron
What is the outer core? Liquid Iron
What is the mantle? Viscous magma
Why is there convection current inside the mantle? Radioactive decay inside the core
What is the crust? The layer floating on top of the mantle
What are seismic waves? Waves caused by an Earthquake
What is a seismometer? The instrument used for detecting seismic waves
State what happens to a P-wave when it crosses from the mantle into the core.
The average speed of a P-wave in the mantle is 12 km/s. A P-wave travels vertically down from the surface to boundary core-mantle and reflects back to the surface. It travels a total distance of 5800 km. Calculate the total time of travel for the wave.
Explain the difference between transverse and longitudinal waves by referring to sound from a bell and the light from a lamp.
Created by: ursulinephys