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Carbonyl Groups

Esters and Keytones.

What is the name given to the C=O group in organic chem? It is called an Carbonyl group.
How are Aldehydes formed? Through the oxidation of Primary alcohols, under distillation with weak acid catalyst.
How are Keytones formed? Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols.
How can we distinguish between Aldehyde and Keytones? Tollens Reagent, the silver mirror test. Aldehydes will be oxidised to Carboxcylic Acids which forms a silver mirror and the Keytones will not react at all.
How do the boiling points of compounds with the C=O bond differ from Alkanes with similar masses: They will have higher boiling points because the C=O bond is polar and there will be Dipole-Dipole attractions between the molecules.
Comment on the solubility of Keytones and Aldehydes: The C=O bond is capable of forming hydrogen bonds between the H2O molecules making them fairly soluble, with shorter chained ones being more soluble.
What is the most common reaction mechanism for Aldehydes and Keytones? Nucelophilic Addition, the C=O is polar which allows for attack from Nucelophiles and also the double bond is open to addition.
Give an example of a Nucleophilic Addition reaction with an Aldehyde: Reaction of Potassium Cyanide (KCN) with an aldehyde, this will produce a HydroxyNitrile and the carbon chain length will have increased by 1.
Why isn't HCN used commonly in a lab: HCN is a gas at room temp and will be difficult to control, the CN- ion is very dangerous, interfering with Enzymes responsible for respiration.
Created by: mjwilson1988