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Praxis

Nomenclature/Mole, Bonding, Geometry

QuestionAnswer
Anion? Negatively charged atom. Produced when an atom gains an electron. Nonmetallic atoms tend to form anions because they exert a stronger pull on neighboring electron.
Cation? Positively charged atom. Produced when an atom loses on electron. Metals tend to hold their electron loosely and thus lose them more easily.
Binary Compound? Compound containing two elements.
Ternary Compound? Compound containing three elements.
Metals? Elements that gain electrons in chemical reactions. Become anions.
Non-metals? Elements that lose electrons in chemical reactions. Become Cations.
How are Hydrogen-based acids named? Prefix "hydro" followed by the root of the halogen and ending in the suffix "ic".
What is an example of a Hydrogen based acid? Hydrogen fluoride in solution is called Hydrofluoric acid (HF). Hydrogen chloride in solution is Hydrochloric acid (HCl). Hydrobromic acid (HBr). Hydroiodic acid (HI).
What are Oxygen based acids? Oxoacids or carboxylic acids. Contain Hydrogen, Oxygen & another element.
How are Oxygen-based acids named? Oxoanion with the suffic "ic" & adding acid. (NO3 - nitrate anion, combined with Hydrogen = Nitric Acid - HNO3).
What are some common examples of Oxoanions? Nitrate - NO3. Sulfate - SO4. Chlorate - ClO
What is the Molecular Structure of salts? Binary compound formed of a metal & non-metal.
What is the Molecular Structure of Oxides? Metal + oxygen.
What is the Molecular Structure of Peroxides? Oxides that contain one or more oxygen atoms than normal valence rules would predict. More Oxygen atoms than predictable.
What is the Molecular Structure of acids? Binary compounds - Hydrogen + non-metal in solution. Ternary compounds - Hydrogen + complex ion in solution. In reactions acids bond with an H ion.
What is the Molecular Structure of Bases? Ternary compound - metal + complex ion OH-. In reaction bases lose H ions.
How do acids & bases react together? Neutralization reactions because the two compounds cancel each other out & produce water. Neutralization reactions are often very important in many industrial & biological processes.
Define IUPAC nomenclature? International Union of Pure & Applied Chemistry. Standards for naming chemical compounds.
What are compound common names? Names applied to compounds before IUPAC rules were formulated and thus do not follow those standards.
How is IUPAC nomenclature helpful? Correct compound formula can be derived from proper name & vise-versa. Used as standard across the scientific community.
What is the basis for nomenclature of organic compounds? Naming depends on type of bonds between molecules. Depends on functional groups within compound. Describes bonding between atoms as rings &/or chains & identifies the type & location of functional groups.
What do organic compound names consist of? three parts - Root for largest chain or ring of Carbon atoms. Suffix for functional group(s). Names of other groups or elements present.
What are Cyclic hydrocarbons? Rings.
What are the rules for IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic binary compounds? Name of metal first + root of non-metal + suffix "ide". i.e. sodium chloride, aluminum bromide, potassium sulfide, sodium pentoxide.
How are inorganic compounds named when no metal is present? First element named is the left-most element on the periodic table. Greek prefix is added to element name indicating # of atoms of that element present. i.e. carbon monoxide, dinitrogen tetrachloride. triphosphorous pentafluoride, hydrogen dioxide.
Created by: kastega