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Chem110 Review Test2

Review for Chem110 quiz/test for DelTech Owens

What is the basic structural unit of an element? The atom
An atom is the smallest unit of an element that retains the __ of that element. properties
What are the 3 primary particles of an atom? electrons, protons, neutrons
A small, dense, positively charged region in the center of an atom is called the __. nucleus
Protons are __ charged. positively
Neutrons have a __ charge. neutral
Electrons have a __ charge. negative
If the electrons and protons of an atom are equal in number, the atom will have a __ charge. neutral
On the periodic table, the number of protons in an atom is represented by the __ __. atomic number
On the periodic table, the sum of the protons and neutrons is called the __ __. mass number
On the periodic table, if there is no charge shown for an element, then its charge is __. zero
To find the number of electrons for an element on the periodic table, subtract the __ __ from the __ __. mass number from the atomic number
What is the mass and charge for an electron? Charge = -1; Mass (amu)= 5.4 x 10^-28
Electrons are abbreviated as __. e
What is the mass and charge for a proton? Charge = +1; Mass (amu) = 1.00
Protons are abbreviated as __. p
What is the mass and charge for a neutron? Charge = 0; Mass (amu) = 1.00
Neutrons are abbreviated as __. n
Atoms of the same element that have different masses than the "normal" atom of that element are called __. isotopes
Isotopes contain the same number of __ as a normal atom of that element. protons
Isotopes have __ __ number of __. a different number of neutrons
Two isotopes of hydrogen are called __ and __. deuterium and tritium
Isotopes of the same element have __ chemical properties. identical
Some isotopes are __. radioactive
The atomic mass is really the __ __ of the masses of all the isotopes that make up the element. weighted average
An average corrected by the relative amounts of each isotope present in nature is called the __ __. weighted average (which is equal to its atomic mass)
The first experimentally based theory of atomic structure is called __ __ __. Dalton's Atomic Theory
Which of Dalton's Atomic Theory postulates is wrong? 2 and 3; the rest are all true.
What disproves the following postulate from Dalton's Atomic Theory (#2): "An atom cannot be created, divided, destroyed, or converted to any other type of atom." radioactivity
What disproves the following postulate from Dalton's Atomic Theory (#3): "Atoms of a particular element have identical properties." isotopes
Thomson (of Crookes and Thomson) discovered the __. electron
Electrons were the first subatomic particle to be discovered. This was done using a __ __ __. cathode ray tube
Experiments by __ __ and __ __ showed that the atom is composed of + and - particles. William Crookes and Eugene Goldstein
When Crookes ran his experiment using a cathode ray tube, rays of lights were seen traveling between the two electrodes. The electrodes were called the __ and the __. cathode, anode
The cathode in a cathode ray tube was __ (negative or positive)? negative
The anode in a cathode ray tube was __ (negative or positive)? positive
Later experiments by __ proved the rays were both electrical and magnetic. J.J. Thomson
The ability to produce cathode rays is a characteristic of __ __. all materials
It was Thomson who announced that cathode rays were really streams of negative particles of energy. These particles are __. electrons
Experiments by Goldstein proved that there were particles of equal charge, but of opposite sign, to the electron. Those particles are called __. protons
Neutrons have a mass almost __ to that of a proton. identical
The mass of a neutron is __ __ __ __ lower than that of a proton. less than 1%
Neutrons were proven to exist by __ __. James Chadwick
Rutherford's __ __ experiment proved that the atom is mostly empty space. Gold Foil
We use the measurement of particle __ rather than position. energy
The absorption or emission of light by atoms is called __. spectroscopy
Spectroscopy is used to understand the electronic __. structure
Light is a form of __ __. electromagnetic radiation
Electromagnetic radiation travels in __ from a source. waves
The speed of light is __. 3.0 x 10^8 m/s
Electromagnetic radiation goes farther if its __ are shorter. waves
Light moves as a collection of __ waves. sine
The distance between identical points on successive waves is called __. wavelength
Each wavelength of electromagnetic radiation travels at the same __ but has its own characteristic energy. velocity
Wavelengths and energy are __ related when talking about electromagnetic radiation. inversely
Bohr's theory: atoms can absorb and emit energy via __ of electrons to higher energy levels. promotion
Bohr's theory: when excited electrons return to lower levels of energy, this is called __. relaxation
Bohr's theory: __ __ are a result of electron transitions between __ __ in the atoms. allowed levels
Each electron has its own __ lines, or signature. spectral
Each element has its own __ __. electron structure
Spectral lines of electrons can be seen using a __. spectroscope
The emission spectrum of what element lead to the modern understanding of the electronic structure of the atom? hydrogen
Bohr's Atom: electrons exist in fixed energy levels surrounding the __. nucleus
Bohr's Atom: promotion of electrons occurs as they absorb __. energy
Bohr's Atom: energy is released as an electron travels back to __ __ once its excess energy has been used. lower levels; this is called relaxation
Bohr's Atom: the amount of energy absorbed when an electron jumps from one energy level to a higher energy level is a __ quantity. precise
Bohr's Atom: when an electron jumps from one energy level to a higher one, the difference between the orbits represents the __ of that jump. energy
Bohr called the fixed energy levels of electrons __. orbits
Bohr called the lowest possible energy level for an electron its __ __. ground state
According to Bohr's theory, electrons are only found in __ levels, or obits. allowed
An electron's orbit is different from an atomic __. orbital
One major change between Bohr's Atomic Theory and modern Atomic Theory is that electrons do not move in __. orbits
Bohr's model of the atom failed to explain their line __. spectra
Electrons move rapidly within the atomic orbital giving it a high __ __. electron density
The Periodic Table was invented independently by __ __ and __ __. Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer
As you list elements on the periodic table in order of atomic mass, there is a distinct regular __ in their properties. variation
The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. This is called __ __. periodic law
Metalloids (as listed on the periodic table) and like metals AND __. They are intermediate substances. nonmetals
On the periodic table, a horizontal row of elements is called a __. period
On the periodic table, a vertical column of elements is called a __. group
Elements in a particular __, or family on the periodic table, share many similarities. group
If a group on the periodic table has an A in front of it, that means the column features __ __. main-group elements
If a group on the periodic table has an B in front of it, that means the column features __ __. transitional elements
Elements that tend to lose electrons during chemical change are called __. They form positive ions. metals
A substance whose atoms tend to gain electrons during chemical change are called __. They form negative ions. nonmetals
Metals are found primarily in the left __ of the periodic table. 2/3
Metals have high __ and __ conductivity. electrical and thermal
Metals have high __ and __. malleability and ductility (meaning they can be formed into thin wire)
Metals have a high __. metallic luster
Most metals are __ at room temperature. solid
Mercury, though a metal, is a __ at room temperature. liquid
Nonmetals tend to gain __, forming negative ions. electrons
Nonmetals can be found in the right __ of the periodic table. 1/3
Nonmetals tend to be __. brittle
Nonmetals are __ solids or gases. powdery
Basically, nonmetal properties are the __ of metal properties. opposite
Most periodic tables give the element __, atomic __, and atomic __. symbol, atomic number, atomic mass
The primary factor in understanding how atoms join together to form compounds it the __ __. electron arrangement
The arrangement of electrons in atoms is atom's __ __. electron arrangement
The outermost electrons in an atom, which are involved in chemical bonding, are called __ __. valence electrons
Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom didn't clearly explain the electron __ __ __ __. structure of other atoms
Wave properties of electrons conflict finding their specific __. location
Who developed the equations that took into account the particle nature and the wave nature of electrons? Shroedinger
Schroedinger's equations allow us to determine the __ of finding an electron on a specific region of space. probability
Each possible energy level of an electron has one or more __ or __. sublevels or subshells
Each electronic sublevel contains one or more atomic __. orbitals (remember, orbitals differ from orbits)
The first 4 sublevels are designated __. s, p, d, f
The higher the energy level, the __ the electron is from the atomic nucleus. farther
If an electron's principle energy level is 1, then it's sublevel is __ __. also 1
The electron capacity of a principle energy level is __. 2(n)^2
When determining how many electrons can in in a sublevel, you always __ the number of the sublevel. double
A set of energy-equal orbitals within a principle energy level is called a __. sublevel
Electrons in the 3d subshell have __ energy than electrons in the 3p subshell. more
When describing the location of an atom, you must specify both the __ __ __ and the __. principle energy level and the subshell
A specific region of a sublevel containing a maximum of 2 electrons is called an __. orbital
Orbitals are named by their __ and their __ __ __. sublevel and their principle energy level
Each type of orbital has a characteristic __. shape
The S type orbital is __ symmetrical. spherically
The P type orbital has a shape like a __. dumbbell
The s subshell has _ orbital, and a maximum of __ electrons. 1 orbital, 2 electrons
The p subshell has __ orbitals, and a maximum of __ electrons. 3 orbitals, 6 electrons
The d subshell has __ orbitals, and a max of __ electrons. 5 orbitals, 10 electrons
The f subshell has __ orbitals, and a max of __ electrons. 7 orbitals, 14 electrons
The arrangement of electrons in atomic orbitals is called an __ __. electronic configuration
The building up principle helps determine the electron configuration. Another phrase for the "building up" principle is the __ __. Aufbau Principle
Electrons fill the __-__ orbital that is available first. lowest-energy
Each orbital can hold up to 2 electrons with their spins in opposite directions. This is called the __ __ __. Pauli Exclusions Principle
Each orbital in a subshell is half-filled with one electron and prior to filling the orbitals with 2 electrons. This describes __ __. Hund's Rule
To write an electron's configuration, you must obtain the total number of __ in the atom from the atomic number. electrons
To write an electron's configuration, you must remember that electrons occupy the __ energy orbitals that are available. That means __ comes first. lowers, 1s
To write an electron's configuration, you must remember that each __ __ __ contains the same number of sublevels. principle energy level
To write an electron's configuration, you must remember that the s sublevel has __ orbital, the p sublevel has __ orbitals, and the d sublevel has __ orbitals. 1,3,5
To write an electron's configuration, you must remember that there can't be more than __ electrons in any orbital. 2
To write an electron's configuration, you must fill orbitals from __ to __ energy. lowest to highest
To write an electron's configuration, you must remember that the max number of electrons in any principal energy level is __. 2(n)^2
Noble gases are extremely __. stable
Noble gases are called __ because they don't readily bond to other elements. inert
The stability of noble gases is due to a full complement of __ __ in the outermost s and p sublevels. valence electrons
Elements usually react in such a way as to attain the electron configuration of the noble gas closest to them in the periodic table. This is called the __ __. Octet Rule
Elements on the right side of the periodic table more right to the next __ __. noble gas
Elements on the left side of the periodic table move __ to the noble gas of the previous row. backward
Atoms will __, __, or __ electrons in chemical reactions to attain this more stable energy state. gain, lose, or share
Elements in families (or groups) other than the noble gases are more __. reactive
A stable electron configuration is called the __ __ configuration. noble gas
Created by: IsaacJ