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Chapter 1&2

Matter - anything that has mass and takes up space.
Atoms - the smallest pieces of matter with predictable properties.
What are the three states of matter? Solids, Liquids and Gasses
Properties of Solid Fixed Shape, Fixed Size, Fixed Volume, Not Compressible
Properties of Liquid Fixed Volume, No fixed shape, Not compressible, can change orientation, particles flow.
Properties of Gasses No fixed shape, no fixed volume, particles far apart, can flow.
What is 0 Kelvin? It is absolute zero, where atoms don't move.
Properties of Matter: Substances and Mixtures
Substances - are the same all the way through no matter the source. Pure.
2 Categories of Substances - Elements and Compounds.
Elements - every single atom is of the same element in a substance.
Compound - same ratio and arrangement of atoms no matter the source.
Mixtures - Physically combined substances.
2 Types of Mixtures - Homogeneous Mixture and Heterogeneous Mixture:
Homogeneous Mixtures - No visible phases, would not be consistent with another sample.
Heterogeneous Mixtures - Visible differences within a sample.
What are the methods of physical separation? Filtration, Distillation, Chromatography.
Filtration - using a physical barrier to separate solids from liquids or big things from small things.
Distillation - Separate a dissolved solid or two liquids by boiling off one of the substances.
Chromatography - Based on differences in attraction of different molecules.
Physical Properties - Can be measured without changing the composition of the material.
Chemical Properties - Can not be measured without risking a change to the composition of materials.
Extensive Properties - Depends on the amount present.
Intensive Properties - Does not matter how much is present.
Qualitative Measurement - No number measurement.
Quantitative Measurement - Numbered measurement.
1 Gigameter = _____ m? 1 Kilameter? 1 CM? 1 MM? 1 Picometer? 1x10^9 m 1x10^3 m 1x10^-2 m 1x10^-3 m 1x10^-12 m
Formula to calculate Kelvine from Celcius. K=C+273
Derived Unites - Volume, Density
Volume Length x Width x Height
Density Relationship of the mass and volume. Usually measured in g/ml. D = mass/volume.
Precision - repeatability of an experiment.
Accuracy - The relationship between the measured value and the true value.
Exact Measurement - A measure or a value that can be known perfectly.
Inexact Measurement - A measure or a value that has uncertainty.
Significant figures - Any nonzero digit, significant. Zeroes between nonzeroes ARE significant. Zeroes at the beginning of a number, never significant. Zeroes at the end of a number after the decimal, always significant. Zeroes at the end, before the decimal, need more i
Rules for Multiplication and Division with Sig Figs. Answer can not have more sig figs than origional measurement that had the fewest.
Rules for Addition and Subtraction with Sig Figs. The answer can not have more sig figs after the decimal than the original measurement that had the fewest after the decimal.
How did the Greeks use Chemistry? Used 4 major elements, used myths to explain what was going on in the world around them.
Democritus and Chemistry - each substance is made up of particles, these particles can't be broken down any further.
Dalton's modern atomic theory - a.) Everything is made up of atoms. b.) Atoms of one element are identical, atoms of different elements have different properties. c.) Atoms are neither created nor destroyed. d.) compounds form when atoms of different elements are combined chemically
Cathode Ray Tubes - beam of particles attracted to a positive electrode
Thompson - Theorized the particles must be negative and called them electrons.
Mulliken - Did an oil drop experiment and figured out the -1 charge and mass of electrons.
Rutherford - Gold foil experiment, discovered the nucleous, using an anode ray (beam where particles attach to a negative electrode) discovered the proton in the nucleus, +1 charge.
Chadwick - discovered the neutron, a particl with no charge in the neucleous.
Proton - Determines the Identity of atom also known as atomic number.
Atomic Mass - The particles that make up the majority of the atoms weight.
How do you calculate the atomic mass? Protons + Neutrons = Atomic Mass
Atoms normally have no ______ so the number of ______ will be equal to the number of _______. Charge, Electrons, Protons.
If a proton goes through a property change, what type of property change would it undergo and what would the new particle be? Identity property change, New Atom.
If an electon goes through a property change, what type of property change would it undergo and what would the new particle be? Charge property change, Ion.
If a neutron goes through a property change, what type of property change would it undergo and what would the new particle be? Mass property change, Isotope.
1H Hydrogen
2H - Deuerium
3H - Tritium
How do you calculate relative mass? Atomic mass x % of abundance/100 = Relative Mass
On the periodic table, what is the verticle collection of elements? Groups, Family's, Columns, they are number 1-18.
On the periodic table, what is the horizontal collection of elements? Row, Period, they are numbered 1-7.
Group 1 on the periodic table Alkali Metals
Group 2 on the periodic table Alkaline Earth AMetals
Group 11 on the periodic table Coinage Metals
Group 17 on the periodic table Halogens or Halides
Group 18 on the periodic table Noble Gasses
Metals on the Periodic Table are - below and to the left of the stair step line. Mallebale, ductile, conduct heat and electricity. Solid at room temp. Prefer to lose electrons.
Nonmetals - above and to the right of the stair step line, usually a gas or a liquid at room temp. Brittle if solid. Do not conduct heat or electricity. Prefer to gain electrons.
Metalloids - lie along the stair step line, have some properties of metals, some of non-metals.
Molecule - particle formed when atoms share electrons.
Covalent Bond - link formed between 2 atoms that are sharing electrons.
Diatomic Molecules - Formed by 2 atoms of the same element. ex.) H2, N2 O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2.
Formula - # and types of atoms.
Structure - Gives info about arrangement.
Ionic Bond - formed by the attraction of opposite charges.
Cation - positively charged ion.
Antion- negatively charged ion.
NH4^+1 Amonium Ion
OH^-1 Hydroxide
MnO4^-1 Permaganate
C2H3O2^-1 Acetate
NO3^-1 Nitrate
CO3^-2 Carbonate
SO4^-2 Sulfate
PO4^-3 Phosphate
Positive Ions are always named first, anions, (except polyatomic ions) lose their name, gain ______. Example Sodium Chlorine, chlorine is changed to chlor____ ide
Radioactivity - when the nucleus of an atom gives off mols, energy, or both to become stable.
What sort of damage does an alpha particle (two protons, two neutrons) do? Big but slow, no danger unless they get too close.
What sort of damage does a beta particle (electron) do? Smaller and faster, can penetrate more easily and cause more damage than an alpha particle.
What sort of damage does a gamma particle (pure energy) do? Most penetrating, most dangerous.
Created by: Oni Oceans