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# Stats Pip

### intro to stats and research design

What is a variable any observation of a physical, attitudinal or behavioral characteristic that can take on values
What is a discrete observation can take on only specific values--whole #-- no other values can exist between these numbers
What is a continuous observation can take on a full range of values--number out several decimal places-- an infinite number of potential values exists
What is nominal variables a variable used for observations that have categories or names as their values
What is an ordinal variable a variable used for observations that have rankings such as 1st, 2nd, 3rd...
What is an interval variable a variable used for observations that have numbers as their values and the distance or interval between pairs of consecutive numbers is assumed to be equal
What is a ratio variable a variable that meets criteria for an interval variable but also has a meaningful zero point
What is a scale variable A variable that meets the criteria for an interval or a ratio variable
What is a level a discrete value or condition that a variable can take on
What is an independent variable a variable that we either manipulate or observe to determine its effects on the dependent variable
What is a good variable reliable and complete
what is a dependent variable the outcome variable that we hypothesize to be related to or caused by changes in the independent variable
What is a confounding variable any variable systematically varies with the independent variable so that we cannot logically determine which variable is at work also called a confound
What is reliability Refers to the consistency of a measure
What is validity the extent to which a test actually measures what was intended to measure
What is hypothesis testing the process of drawing conclusions about whether a particular relation between variables is supported by the evidence
What is operational definition specifies the operations or procedures used to measure or manipulate a variable
What is correlation an association between two or more variables
What is an experiment a study in participants are randomly assigned to a condition or level of one or more independent variables which par
What is a random assignment every participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group or experimental condition in the study
What is an between--groups research design participants experience one, and only one ,level of the independent variable
What is a within--groups research design the different levels of the independent variable are experienced by all participants in the study also called a repeated- measure research design
Created by: martinezle1