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A&P Ch 2

Basic Chemistry

Subparticle that has a POSITIVE charge? Protons
Subparticle that has NO CHARGE(neutral)? Neutrons
Subparticle that has a NEGATIVE charge? Electrons
Protons and neutrons weigh? 1 Atomic mass unit (AMU)
Electrons weigh? 0 AMU (Atomic mass unit)
In an atom, the number of protons equal the number of electron. True
What is reffered to as an "energy packet"? Electrons
What is found at the center or an atom? Protons and Neutrons
What tiny subparticle(s)orbit around the nucleus of an atom? Electrons
What subparticle determines the chemical behavior (ability to bond) with other atoms? Electrons
This portrays the atom as a miniature solar system. Planetary model
This is equal to the number of protons that the atom contains. Atomic number
The sum of the protons and neutrons. Atomic mass number (AMU)
These are different atomic forms of the same element, they vary only in the number of ELECTRONS they contain. Isotope(s)
This is the simpliest atom and contains one proton and one electron. Hydrogen(H)
These are radioactive isotopes, they emit subatomic particles from their nucleus. Radioisotope(s)
This is an average of the mass numbers of all the isotopes of an element. Atomic weight
This is close to the mass number of the most abundant isotope, and reflects the natural isotope variation. Atomic weight
These are heavy isotopes, they tend to be unstable and decompose to become a more stable isotope. Radioisotope(s)
The process of spontaneous atomic decay is? Radioactivity
Two or more atoms of the same (or different) elements combined chemically are? Molecules
Two or more different elements combined chemically are? Compounds
The process in which molecues are formed, changed or broken down. Chemical reaction
True or false: Atoms are stable (inert) when the outermost shell us complete. True
True or false: Inert elements are chemically inactive. True
Atoms are considered stable when their outermost orbital shell has 8 electrons, this is known as? The rule of eights
In an atom, shell 1 can hold? A maximum of 2 electrons
In an atom, shell 2 can hold? A maximum of 8 electrons
In an atom, shell 3 can hold? A maximum of 18 electrons
In these elements the valence shell is NOT full and they are unstable. Reactive elements
Which shell is the active shell for bonding? Valence shell
When do atoms become ions? When they are positively or negatively charged
This bond is formed by the complete transfer of electron(s) from one atom to another (or others). Ionic bond
Ions are also called? Electrolytes
These ions are negative due to the gain of electron(s). Anions
These ions are positive due to the loss oof electron(s). Cations
Which are the strongest types of bonds? Covalent bonds
What type of bonds are either nonpolar or polar? Covalent bonds
When the electrons are shared equally between the atoms of a molecule and the molecule is electrically neutral, this is known as what? Nonpolar covalent bond
When the electrons have NOT been shared equally between the atoms of a molecule they will have a negative and positive side or pole, this is known as what? Polar covalent bond
What is a classic example of a polar covalent bond? Water
Which type of bond is the weakest? Chemical bonds
When a bond is linking molecules NOT atoms. Chemical bond
What type of bond creates the surface tension of water? Hydrogen bonds
This type of bond provides attraction between molecules, "change differences attract". Hydrogen bonds
In this type of bond the hydrogen (H) is attracted to the negative portion of the polar molecule. Hydrogen bond
What happens during a synthesis reaction? Atoms or molecules combine and energy is absorbed to form bond formation.
A+B-->AB or smaller to larger, is an example of? Synthesis reaction
What happens during a decomposition reaction? Molecule is broken down and chemical energy id released.
AB-->A+B or larger to smaller, is an example of? Decomposition reaction
What happens during an exchange reaction? Bonds are both made and broken using both synthesis and decomposition reactions, a switch between molecule parts and different molecules are made.
AB+C-->AC+B, bonds being made and broken is an example of? Exhange reactions
What is the difference between inorganic and organic compounds? Organic compounds contain carbon, inorganic compounds do not.
Four examples of ORGANIC compounds are? Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
Four examples of INORGANIC compounds are? Water, salts, some acids and some bases
Water is polar, this means what? It has a positive and negative region.
Which type of compound will pull apart when dropped into water? Any ionic compound
What is the most abundant compound in the body? Water
Four vital properties of water are? High heat capacity, solvent, chemical reactivity and cushoning
True of false: Salts are neither an acid or a base. True
What easily dissosiates in the presence of water? Salts
Why are salts vital to many body functions? They include electrolytes which conduct electrical currents.
Hydrogen ions are often called? Protons
More hydrogen means? Compounds are more acidic
Proton donors that release Hydrogen ions (H+). Acids
Alcholyn is associated with? Bases
Proton acceptors that release hydroxyl ions? Bases
Molecular ions refer to? Bases
What measures the relative concentration of hydrogen ions? pH
pH 7 is? Neutral
pH below 7 is? Acidic
pH above 7 is? Basic
Chemicals that can regulate pH balance? Buffers
Monomers(building blocks) are joined to form polymers through the removal of water molecules describes? Dehydration synthesis
Polymers are broken down into monomers through the addition of water molecules describes? Hydrolysis
Digestion is an example of? Dehydration synthesis
Created by: rhiginbo