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Exam 1= Solar System

QuestionAnswer
ecliptic Earth orbits the sun in a plane
zodiac constellation The constellations through which the Sun moves throughout the year as it travels along the ecliptic
asterims patterns formed by bright stars
constellation used to describe an entire area of the celestial sphere and all the objects in it.
circumpolar Stars and constellations that never go below the horizon
Where on Earth are all visible stars circumpolar? South Pole
What causes our seasons? The temperature and, hence, the seasons are determined by the duration of daylight at any place and the heigh of the Sun in the sky there.
winter solstice the point on the ecliptic farthest south of the celestial equator
autumnal equinox occurs around Sep 22, with the Sun heading southward across the celestial equator, as seen from Earth.
Thales Inventor of Elemental Geometry and Sterography
Aristotle Taught a geo-centric (earth-centered) Universe
Aristarchus Measured the sizes and distance of the Moon and the Sun fairly accurately
Hipparchus Creator of the first Star Catalog and inventor of the magnitude scale of stellar brightness still in use today
Ptolemy Mathematician who tired to make his bulky epicycle system work to explain the motions of the planets in the sky.
Copernicus "Sun-Centered" "solar" system
Clavius Calculated a more correct value for the length of the tropical year
Brahe Studied and measured the heavens for more than 20 years. He complied detailed observation logs of the locations of the stars, planets and comets, all before the invention of the telescope.
Harrison Clockmaker and inventor of the Marine Chronometer and solver of the "Longitude Problem". He is responsible for modern accurate timekeeping and made it possible for ships to accurately calculate their positions on the open sea.
circular motion the rotation along a circle
What was Tycho Brahe's contribution? devising the most precise instruments available before the invention of the telescope for observing the heavens.
The Law of Ellipses (Kepler law) the path of the planets about the sun is elliptical in shape, with the center of the sun being located at one focus.
The Law of Equal Areas (Kepler law) An imaginary line drawn from the center of the sun to the center of the planet will sweep out equal areas in equal intervals of time
The Law of Harmonies (Kepler law) The ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their average distances from the sun.
Analemma a curve representing the changing angular offset of a celestial body (usually the Sun) from its mean position on the celestial sphere as viewed from another celestial body (usually the Earth).
Gnomon The projecting piece on a sundial that shows the time by the position of its shadow.
What is/causes the Equation of Time? The plane of the Earth's equator is inclined to the plane of the Earth's orbit around the Sun & The orbit of the Earth around the Sun is an ellipse and not a circle
How many constellations are there in the sky 88
The summer solstice occurs at the beginning of summer.
first part of aries is currently located in the western part of the constellation of pisces
the moon will cross the ecliptic plane how many times? two times per lunation
The libration of the moon allows us to what? see more than 50% of the moon's surface from earth
The moon is Lease dense than the Earth
Universal Time (UT) is a time standard based on the rotation of the Earth
Created by: stephxo51