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Chem 110 review 01

Review test for chem 110 DelTech Owens

QuestionAnswer
Chemistry is the study of __; its properties and the changes it undergoes, including energy changes that accompany some processes. Matter
Anything that has mass and occupies space can be called __. matter
The ability to do work to accomplish some change (or cause movement) is called __. energy
Changes in matter always involve either gain or loss of __. energy
The study of chemistry involves matter, energy, and their __. interrelationship
Matter and energy are at the heart of __. chemistry
The study of life at the molecular level, and the study of the processes associated with life, is called __. biochemistry
Biochemistry deals with the processes associated with life, such as __, __, and __. reproduction, growth, and respiration
The study of matter that is composed principally of carbon and hydrogen is called __ __. organic chemistry
Organic chemists study methods of preparing substances like __, __, __, and industrial __. plastics, drugs, solvents, industrial chemicals
The study of matter that consists of all the elements OTHER than carbon and hydrogen is called __ __. inorganic chemistry
Inorganic chemists have developed substances such as __ and high temperature __ for industrial use. semiconductors and high temperature ceramics
The analysis of matter to determine its composition and how much of each kind of matter that is present is called __ __. analytical chemistry
Analytical chemists detect traces of __ __ in the air and water. toxic chemicals
Analytical chemists develop methods of analyzing human body fluids for __, __, and levels of __. drugs, poisons, levels of medication
A discipline that attempts to explain the way in which matter behaves is called __ __. physical chemistry
Physical chemists develop theoretical concepts and try to prove them __. experimentally
__ is a consequence of changes that chemical substances undergo. Function
A systematic approach to the discovery of new information is called __ __ __. the scientific method
The scientific method is an __ __ to solving scientific problems, not a "cookbook recipe" that will yield new discoveries. organized approach
The first step in the scientific method is called __. observation
The second step in the scientific method is called __ __ __ __. formation of a question
The third step in the scientific method is called __ __. pattern recognition
The fourth step in the scientific method is called __ __. theory development
The fifth step in the scientific method is called __. experimentation
The sixth step in the scientific method is called __ __. information summarization
The color, taste, or odor of a substance is a result of __. observation
Asking why a substance has a certain color, taste, or odor is an example of __ __ __. formulating a question
The discovery of a cause-and-effect relationship between the behavior or a substance and something else is called __ __. pattern recognition
An explanation for an observed phenomenon is called __ __. theory development
A __ is simply an attempt to explain an observation, while a __ is a hypothesis supported by extensive testing that can predict new facts. hypothesis, theory
To demonstrate the correctness or incorrectness of a hypothesis or theory is called __; it is at the heart of the scientific method. experimentation
Summarizing the results of experimentation the describes a phenomenon is called __ __. information summarization
A scientific __ is the summary of a large quantity of information. law
__ helps us make ideas more clear. Models
The __ __ __ __ has been developed from experimental observations over the past 200 years. atomic theory of matter
Theory and experiment are mutually __. reinforcing
Characteristics of matter are called __. properties
Properties of matter are classified as either __ or __. physical or chemical
A scientific experiment produces __. data
Each piece of data collected during an experiment is the result of a single __ or __. measurement or observation
Name 6 examples of common types of data collected during experiments. 1) mass 2)length 3)volume 4)time 5)temperature 6)energy
The outcome of an experiment is called a __. result
Data and results may be __. But often, they are not. identical
Several pieces of data can be combined, and __ is used to produce a result. logic
The individual details of an experiment are the _; the conclusions based on the data are the _. data, result
The more complete the data gathered during an experiment, the better the __ of the result. quality
Name the 3 states of matter. gaseous, liquid, solid
A gas is made up of particles that are widely __. separated
A gas will expand to __ any container and has no definite shape or volume. fill
Particles of liquid are __ together than those of a gas. closer
Liquids have a definite __ but no definite shape. volume
Particles of a solid are __ together than those of a liquid or a gas. closer
Solids often have a regular and predictable pattern of particle __. arrangement
A solid has a fixed __ and a fixed __. volume, shape
Attractive forces are very _ in solids and very __ in gases. strong (or pronounced), weak
Conversion of a substance from one state to another constitutes a __ __. physical change
A physical change produces a recognizable difference in the __ of a substance without causing any change in its __ or __. appearance, composition or identity
A __ __ can be observed or measured without changing the composition or identity of the substance. physical property
Unlike physical properties, chemical properties result in a __ of composition and can be observed through chemical reactions. change
The process of rearranging, removing, replacing, or adding atoms to produce new substances is called a __ __. chemical reaction
If a change to a substance is reversible, then it has undergone a __ __. physical change
If a change to a substance is not reversible, then it has undergone a __ __. chemical change
In intensive property is a property that is __ of the quantity of the substance. independent
An extensive property is a property that is __ on the quantity of the substance. dependent
Temperature is an __ property. (intensive or extensive) intensive
A pure substance has only __ component. one
A __ is a combination of 2 or more pure substances wherein each substance retains its own identity. mixture
Water is a __. (pure substance or mixture) pure substance
An element is a __ that cannot be changed into a simpler form of matter by any chemical reaction. pure substance
A __ is a substance resulting from the combination of 2 or more elements in a definite, reproducible way. compound
Alcohol and water can be combined into a __; they will coexist as pure substances because they do not undergo a chemical reaction when pure together. mixture
A mixture may be __ or __. homogenous or heterogeneous
If a mixture has a uniform composition, it is __. (homogenous or heterogeneous) homogenous
A homogenous mixture, such as alcohol and water, is called a __. solution
Air, a mixture of gases, is a gaseous __. solution
A heterogeneous mixture has a __ composition. nonuniform
A mixture of salt and pepper is a good example of a __ mixture. heterogeneous
Is concrete a homogenous or a heterogeneous mixture? heterogeneous
When combined, salt and water form a __ mixture. homogenous
Information-bearing figures in a number are termed __ __. significant figures
The term significant figures is all digits in a number representing data that are known with certainty plus one __ digit. uncertain
__ involves the representation of a number as a power of 10. scientific notation
Another word for scientific notation is __ __. exponential notation
When writing in scientific notation, a positive exponent represents the number of decimal places you move to the __. right
When writing in scientific notation, a negative exponent represents the number of decimal places you move to the __. left
When writing a figure in scientific notation, the decimal always goes __ space to the right of the first digit. one
__ is the difference between the true value and our estimation of the value. Error
Two types of error exist: __ error and __ error. random error and systemic error
Random error causes data to be scattered in a more or less __ way around some average value. uniform
Systemic error causes data to be __ or __ than the accepted value. smaller or larger
Which kind of error (random or systemic) is inherent in experimentation? random
Which kind of error (random or systemic) can be found and sometimes corrected? systemic
Dust on weight scale, which makes items appear to be slightly heavier than they truly are, is an example of which kind of error? (Random or systemic?) systemic
__ is the degree of agreement between the true value and the measured value. Accuracy
__ is the degree of doubt in a single measurement. Uncertainty
The presence of some error is a __ of any measurement. consequence
Some doubt or uncertainty is present in any experiment because the answer cannot be expressed mathematically with an __ number of digits. infinite
It is always best to measure a quantity __ times. several
Replicating measurements of the same quantity minimizes the __ of the result. uncertainty
__ is a measure of the agreement of replicated measurements. Precision
True or false: accuracy and precision are really just the same thing. false
Precise measurements yield close results to one another, but if they are far from the true figure, then they are still __. inaccurate
When performing mathematical calculations, the final answer can only be as accurate as the __ accurate figure in the equation. least
__ numbers have uncertainty. Inexact
Exact numbers have no __. uncertainty
If there are exactly 60 minutes in an hour (which is true) then 60 minutes is an _ number. exact
The last digit of the result of any equation is the most __. uncertain
The "EE" key on a graphing calculator means times __. ten
Regarding significant figures: the answer to an equation cannot have __ significance than any of the quantities that produced the answer. greater
If you add 4.26 and 3.831 in a calculator, the answer is 8.091. But how would you write the answer? 8.09 (3 significan digits)
A __ defines the basic quantity being measured in an experiement. unit
Unlike the English system of measurement, the metric system is truly __. systematic
The metric system is composed of a set of units that are related decimally; in other words, as powers of __. ten
In the metric system, mass is represented as __. grams
In the metric system, length is represented as __. meters
In the metric system, volumes is represented as __. liters
Grams, meters, and liters are the 3 basic __ of the metric system. units
To convert from one unit to another, we must have a __ __ that relate the two units. conversion factor
The proper use of conversion factors is called the __-__ method. factor-label method
When using conversion factors to convert units of measure, the unit of measure you're trying to convert to always goes __ the dividing line. below
Converting a quantity expressed in one measuring system to a quantity expressed in another requires a __ __ unit. briding conversion unit
__ describes the quantity of matter in an object. Mass
__ is the force of gravity on an object. Weight
Mass is __ of gravity. independent
Mass is a result of a comparison of an unknown mass with a known mass. The known mass is called a __ __. standard mass
__ are instruments used to measure the mass of materials. Balances
The mass of an atom is measured in __ __ __. atomic mass units (amu)
A __ is the standard metric unit of length. meter (m)
The standard metric unit for measure volume is the __. liter (L)
1 mL is, by definition, equal to 1 __. 1 cm^3 (one centimeter squared)
The standard metric unit for measuring time is the __. second
**The relationship between heat content and temperature depends on the __ and __ of the material. quantity and composition
Celsius and __ temperature measurements are used exclusively in chemistry. kelvin
To convert from Celsius to Kelvin, we use what formula? K = C + 273.15
Energy is the ability to do _. work
In what 2 ways can energy be categorized? Note that all energy falls under one of these categories. kinetic and potential
The energy of motion is categorized as __ __. It is energy in process. kinetic energy
The energy of position is categorized as __ __. It is stored energy. potential energy
In chemical reactions, energy cannot be __ or __. created or destroyed
Energy may be __ from one form to another. converted
Conversion of energy from one form to another will always occur with less than __ efficiency. 100%
When converted, energy is not __; rather, it is not useful. lost
Heat energy may be represented in what 2 forms of measurement? calories (cal) and joules (j)
One calorie is defined as the amount of heat energy required to increase the temperature of 1 g of __ by 1 degree Celsius. water
The measurement of heat energy is dependent upon the quantity of the material. So it is an __ property. extensive property (because it's dependent on quantity)
Actual temperature is an __ quantity because it is independent of quantity. intensive property
The traditional food calorie, denoted by a capital C, is actually a __. kilocalorie
The kilocalorie, or large C calorie, is equal __ small calories. 1000
Not all substances have the same ability to hold heat. One gram of iron and one gram of water do __ contain the same amount of heat energy. not
__ is a measure of the number of particles of a substance, or the mass of those particles, that are contained in a specified volume. Concentration
How do you find the density of a substance? Divide its mass by its volume. D=M/V
__ is the ration of mass to volume. Density
In density calculations, mass is usually represented in __. grams (g)
In density calculations, volume is usually represented in __ or __ __. milliliters (mL) or cubic centimeters (cm^3 or cc)
Specific gravity is a __ term. unitless
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of the object in question to the density of _ __ at __ __ __. pure water at 4 degrees Celsius
The numerical values for the density and specific gravity of a substance are __. equal
Created by: IsaacJ