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Kinetics AP Chem

Kinetics and Rates

Define the collision theory When two chemicals react, their molecules have to collide with each other with proper energy and orientation
What is the probability that two molecules will react? The chance of the collision in the proper orientation with the proper energy is about 1/2.
Will five molecules in the same equation ever react in one step? No, the probability is almost impossible!
What are elementary steps? Series of smaller steps that eventually lead to the overall reaction.
Define intermediates Species that are created during the elementary steps of the reaction, but are not a part of the overall reaction. They are products, and they are consumed as reactants immediately.
What are catalysts? Catalysts speed up chemical reactions by decreasing the activation energy required. They are reactants, and they come out as products in the overall reaction.
Reaction mechanisms are the ones that determine the rate law because they are slow
What is activation energy? The amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction. In exothermic reactions, the overall will be greater than the initial, and in endothermic, it will be less than the activation energy.
Zero order reactions are not dependent on concentration
The graph for zero order reactions are: rate=k (-k)
In second order reactions if the concentration doubles the rate will quadruple or do the square of what the concentration did
The graph for second order reactions are: t vs. 1/(A) and the slope= k
In first order reactions if the concentration doubles the rate will double
The graph for first order reactions are: t vs. ln(A) and the slope is -k
What equation will be used to find the activation energy? Arrhenius' Equation
Which factors affect the rate? Temperature, surface area, concentration, the use of catalysts, if the compound is ionic, or if it is in aqueous form
How are rate laws determined (experimentally or theoretically)? Using experimental data, so experimentally
Why do ionic substances react faster? They break into ions, unlike covalent substances
How do you determine the overall reaction order? Add all the exponents of the orders together for the overall
Write the rate law for a first order reaction using A and B, if the rate doubles when A is doubled, and the rate stays the same when B doubles rate= k(A)^1(B)^0
Write the basic steps used to find slopes in a calculator 1. Stat, Edit 2. Enter Data 3. Stat, Calc 4. LinearRegression
The rate law graphs correspond to which easy, and famous graph? Linear graphs y= mx +b
What are unimolecular reactions? When only one molecule is reacting.
What are bimolecular reactions? When two molecules are reacting.
What are termolecular reactions? When three molecules are reacting.
Why are termolecular reactions uncommon? The chances of two molecules reacting are only 1/2, three are even less than that.
Is 2NO + O a bimolecular or termolecular reaction? Termolecular because there are three molecules in total. The coefficient must be accounted for.
Created by: Rehnuma32219